Palm Sunday commemorates Jesus's triumphal entry into Jerusalem, seated on a donkey, shortly before the Last Supper and his crucifixion. The entry into Jerusalem is mentioned in all the New Testament gospels, where there is reference to people strewing garments and branches in Jesus's path. In the gospel of John (12:12-13), there is specific reference to palm trees:
much people ... took branches of palm trees, and went forth to meet him, and cried Hosanna ...
Palm Sunday is celebrated in different ways by Christian communities throughout the world; in some United Kingdom churches, crosses made out of palm leaves are provided for the congregation.
William Holman Hunt (1827-1910) was an English artist. Along with John Everett Millais and Dante Gabriel Rossetti, he was one of the founder members of the group of painters known as the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.
Holman Hunt painted The Shadow of Death between 1870 and 1873 during a visit to the Holy Land. The painting depicts Jesus as a young carpenter. With his arms raised in the air, Jesus's shadow creates the impression of a figure hanging on a cross, prefiguring his crucifixion.
The Light of the World was painted by Holman Hunt between 1853 and 1854. It depicts Jesus knocking on a door without a handle which can only be opened from the inside. According to Holman Hunt, this symbolises 'the obstinately shut mind'.
The original painting is at Keble College, Oxford. However, a second version, which Holman Hunt painted towards the end of his life, hangs in St. Paul's Cathedral in London.
Click here to see the second painting in situ at St. Paul's Cathedral.
The Gate is the Notting Hill cinema discussed in the bookmark for p.115.
Scarface is an American crime film released in 1983; it is a re-make of a 1932 film with the same name. Al Pacino plays the starring role of Tony Montana, a Cuban refugee who becomes a drug dealer in Miami, Florida.
There was considerable criticism of the film when it was first released because of its high level of violence and its negative portrayal of Cubans. However, it is now considered a classic.
Time Out is a popular London-oriented weekly magazine which gives comprehensive information about entertainment events, and eating out/drinking venues in the capital. It was first published in 1968. In September 2012, for the first time in its history, it became available for free.
The Time Out company (Time Out Group Limited) also publishes editions of the magazine in 60 other cities throughout the world, including New York, Istanbul, Athens and Sydney.
Matthew Raymond ("Matt") Dillon is an American actor and film director, born in 1964. He has starred in numerous films since 1980, including The Outsiders (1983), Drugstore Cowboy (1989), Wild Things (1998) and Herbie: Fully Loaded (2005).
(under the aegis of means under the protective shield of or with the support of)
Federico Fellini (1920-1993) was an Italian film director and screenwriter. In a career that spanned fifty years, he was renowned for his innovative, highly imaginative and daring film-making. Amongst numerous other awards, he received a Lifetime Achievement Oscar in 1993.
Some of his most admired films include La Strada (1954), Le notti di Cabiria/'The Nights of Cabiria' (1957), La Dolce Vita (1960), 8½ (1963), Roma (1972), Amarcord (1973) and E la nave va/'And the Ship Sails On' (1983).
And the Ship Sails On is set onboard a luxury liner in 1914, where friends of deceased opera singer Edmea Tutua have gathered to mourn her. Amongst the passengers are politicians, aristocrats, singers and a rhinoceros. The role of Edmea Tutua is played by the South African/British actress Janet Suzman, and the film also stars the German dancer and choreographer Pina Bausch as La Principessa Lherimia.
A console table is a small table set against a wall. Sometimes it is freestanding, and sometimes it is attached to the wall by means of ornamental brackets (or consoles).
A fedora is a soft felt hat, usually worn by men. It has a wide brim which curls slightly upwards, and a lengthwise crease in the crown.
Fedoras became fashionable towards the end of the 19th century, and remained so until the 1950s when their popularity declined. However the decline was short-lived and fedoras have been back in fashion since the mid-1970s.
Maurice Harold Macmillan (1894-1986) was Conservative Prime Minister of the United Kingdom between 1957 and 1963. He is famously remembered for having told the British public in a speech in 1957 that they'd 'never had it so good'.
Unfortunately, this optimism could not be extended to his own term as Prime Minister, which was marred in its final stages by two scandals: the Profumo sex scandal (1963) and the lesser known Vassall espionage scandal (1962).
Harold Macmillan resigned as prime minister due to illness in October 1963.
The Oxford Union is a prestigious debating society whose membership is drawn mainly from the University of Oxford (see also the bookmark for p.61).
A capriccio is a painting which depicts architectural features, such as buildings or archaeological remains, in a bizarre or fantastical way (see bookmark for p.6).
San Giorgio Maggiore is one of the islands of Venice. It is the location of the San Giorgio Monastery and the Church of San Giorgio Maggiore.
In the late 1780s, the Venetian artist Francesco Guardi (1712-1793) painted a capriccio featuring the Arcade of the Doge's Palace and San Giorgio Maggiore.
Click here to see Guardi's 'capriccio with S.Giorgio Maggiore'.
Since 1756, it has been the location of the Sèvres company's porcelain factory, which historically has had strong royal and imperial connections. Today, the factory and sales outlet for Sèvres porcelain, known as the Manufacture Nationale de Sèvres, is run by the Ministry of Culture. There is also a museum on the site which, in conjunction with the factory, is now known as Sèvres - Cité de la céramique.
The musical compositions of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) are often identified by a 'K' number. This refers to their position in the Köchel-Verzeichnis ('Köchel Catalogue'), a chronological list of Mozart's compositions put together by Ludwig von Köchel and first published in 1862.
The Austrian company Bösendorfer is one of the world's oldest and most prestigious piano manufacturers.
The firm was founded in Vienna in 1828, and is still in business today as a subsidiary of the Yamaha Corporation.