Cavalry twill is a hardwearing fabric, most often used to make trousers. It has traditionally been used for making riding breeches for cavalry (mounted soldiers).
Cavalry twill has the textile weave known as twill weave, whereby the threads are woven to create a diagonal pattern. Cavalry twill falls into the category known as warp-faced twills, where the warp threads (downward threads) are more closely spaced than the weft threads (horizontal threads).
The picture below shows the classic combination of cavalry twill trousers and tweed jacket.
Lady Augusta Bracknell is a character in The Importance of Being Earnest, a play by Oscar Wilde which was first performed in 1895. In the play, Lady Bracknell, while conversing with a character called John Worthing (also known as Jack), makes the famous remark:
To lose one parent, Mr Worthing, may be regarded as a misfortune; to lose both looks like carelessness.
The company has made over 50 films, but is particularly renowned for elegant period productions based on novels set in Edwardian England. Notable Merchant Ivory films include A Room with a View (1985), Maurice (1987), Howards End (1992) and The Remains of the Day (1993).
The company has also made three films based on Henry James novels: The Europeans (1979), The Bostonians (1984), and The Golden Bowl (2001).
Full Metal Jacket is a 1987 war film which was produced, directed and co-written by Stanley Kubrick. It is an adaptation of a 1979 semi-autobiographical novel by Gustav Hasford entitled The Short-Timers.
The single I Wanna Be Your Drill Instructor, which was released to promote the film, reached no. 2 in the UK charts in 1987.
Click here to listen to I Wanna Be Your Drill Instructor on Spotify.
Francesco Borromini (1599-1667) was a Swiss-born architect who designed several religious building in Rome.
See also the bookmark for page 224.
A cherub is a winged angel; cherubim are often depicted in art as chubby, healthy-looking children with wings. The carved cherubim in the photo on the left are part of the interior of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, a Roman Catholic church in Rome designed by Francesco Borromini.
The Bulgari jewellery company was founded in 1884 by Sotirios Voulgaris who emigrated to Italy from Greece. During the 1970s, the company expanded its operation with the opening of new stores in New York, Geneva, Monte-Carlo and Paris. Today, the company produces a range of luxury items and is owned by the French group LVMH.
Christian Dior S.A. (or simply Dior) is a French company which sells a range of luxury items including ready-to-wear clothing, leather goods and fragrances. It began life as the fashion house founded by the French designer Christian Dior in 1946, and the present-day company still designs and retails haute couture.
Bayerische Motoren Werke A.G (BMW - 'Bavarian Motor Works') is a German company which manufactures luxury cars, motorcycles and engines. It was established in 1917, and has its headquarters in Munich, Germany.
John Anthony Burgess Wilson (1917-1993), who wrote under the name Anthony Burgess, was an English novelist, literary critic, and musical composer. He is probably best remembered for his novel A Clockwork Orange, which was published in 1962. Stanley Kubrick made a film adaptation of the novel which was released in 1971, and generated a great deal of controversy.
Mah-jong (or mahjong) is a game which originated in China, probably in the late 19th century.
It is generally played by four players who use a set of between 136 and 144 mahjong tiles which depict various Chinese characters and symbols. It is essentially a game of skill and strategy, but also involves an element of chance.
The term Raj is often used for the years between 1858 (when control of India was passed to the British Crown) and 1947 (when India gained independence from British rule). However, it may also include the period between 1757 and 1858 when large areas of the Indian subcontinent were under the rule of the British East India Company.
During the British Raj, there were also a number of Princely states in India, under the control of Indian rulers in alliance with the British, an arrangement described as indirect rule or suzerainty. The map below shows the areas of India under direct British rule in 1919 (red), and those under indirect rule (green).
Toy soldiers of the Raj are miniature models of soldiers of the Indian Army, which existed informally from 1858 onwards, and officially between 1895 and 1947. The army comprised native Indian soldiers serving alongside expatriate British officers.
Click here to see some toy soldiers of this type.
Marco Cassani is the name of an Italian artist who was born in 1981, but is too young to be the individual referred to here. There are no records on the internet of other well-known Marco Cassanis who were working as journalists, artists, or historians in the 1980s.
The Gothic Revival style in architecture and the decorative arts, which is also known as Neo-Gothic, originated in England in the 18th century, and later spread to Europe and the Americas. It was broadly characterised by a re-kindling of interest in the architecture and decorative arts of the Medieval period, and, inevitably, it was expressed in different ways in different countries. The pictures (left, right, and below) show various examples of the Gothic Revival style in Italy.
Cerimon, a lord of Ephesus, and Queen Thaissa are characters in the play Pericles, Prince of Tyre.
Pericles, Prince of Tyre is a Jacobean play believed to have been written in 1607 or 1608. There is some dispute about its authorship, although it is generally accepted that George Wilkins wrote the first 9 scenes, and William Shakespeare the remaining thirteen.
As mentioned earlier in the text, Nick and Toby took part in a performance of the play when they were both students at Worcester College, Oxford (see bookmark for page 130).