anvil
a heavy steel or iron block which a blacksmith uses to hammer and shape the metal which is being worked on
baileys
the defensive walls of a medieval castle, or the courtyards between the walls
bay
(as in ‘stood at bay’) the position of a hunted animal who cannot escape further and has turned to face its pursuers
bellows
a device which produces a stream of air to activate a fire
bier
a frame on which a corpse or coffin is laid in order to be carried to a grave
billeting
the assigning of quarters or lodgings
billy-goat
a male goat
boss
an outward-projecting, strengthened area in the centre of a shield
bragget
an alcoholic drink made from ale and fermented, spiced honey
briar
any plant with a prickly stem, such as a bramble, or, specifically, the wild rose
brushwood
low-growing shrubs and trees; undergrowth
burnisher
an instrument for smoothing the surface of, or polishing an item
buskins
calf-high or knee-high boots
Caer Faddon
Bath
Caer Ludd
(also, Caer Lundain, Llundain, Lwndrys) London
canopy
a porch-like addition to a tent, with a pitched roof
carousing
lively, noisy, heavy drinking of alcohol
chaff
husks of corn or grain left after threshing; cut hay or straw used for animal fodder; rubbish or refuse
chain-mail
body armour made of interlinked metal rings
chamberlain
someone who waits on a sovereign or nobleman in his bedchamber, or one of the chief officers of a sovereign or nobleman’s household
champion
to fight for, defend or protect
charger
a horse trained to charge in battle
chased
decorated with a raised design
churls
the lowest-ranking freemen in Medieval society; peasants generally
cleric
clergyman or priest
coracles
small boats made of wickerwork with a waterproof covering, such as animal hide
crupper
the rear or hind-quarters of a horse; a leather strap buckled to the back of a saddle which passes under a horse's tail and prevents the saddle from slipping
dais
a long board or bench
dapple-grey
used to describe a grey horse whose coat has occasional spots or markings of a darker shade
dulse
a red seaweed known as Rhodymenia palmata or Palmaria palmata
ermine
the white (winter) fur of the stoat used for trimming clothes
frontlet
a decorative band worn on the forehead
furbisher
someone who removes rust from swords and polishes them
gable-end
the side wall of a building whose upper part is a triangle formed by a double-sloped roof
gate hammer
door knocker
gorsedd
tumulus, hill, or barrow
honour-price
the wynebwerth of Welsh Law: compensation paid to a person who has been injured or insulted (similar to insult-price/sarhad)
hospitaller
(or Knight Hospitaller) a member of an order of military monks whose origins are in 11th century Jerusalem
hurdles
panels made out of interwoven willow or hazel stems
insult-price
the sarhad of Welsh Law: compensation paid to a person who has been injured or insulted (similar to honour-price/wynebwerth)
joust
to fight on horseback using lances
kneading trough
a wooden trough or tub used to knead dough when making bread
lance
a weapon with a long wooden shaft and an iron or steel tip, used on horseback
latten
a yellow metal, similar to brass, often hammered into thin sheets
lichen
a mixture of fungi and algae which grows on trees and stones
loadstones
pieces of iron oxide with magnetic properties
maintenance
the supply of funds and provisions to keep a war going
mastiff
a large, powerful dog with droopy ears
mead
an alcoholic drink made by fermenting honey and water; also known as metheglin
mettlesome
lively; spirited
mewed
(as in thrice-mewed) moulted; having shed or changed plumage
nag
a small riding horse or pony
ordained
appointed to a particular role, or assigned for a particular purpose
palfrey
a horse used for ordinary riding, rather than for warfare; a small horse for the use of women
pannier
a basket of the type carried by animals, often slung over their backs in pairs
pavilions
large or stately tents with roofs that rise to a central peak
petitioners
those who make humble requests or entreaties for something
Pictland
northern Scotland
pillaged
robbed or plundered with violence
pommels
the front parts of horses’ saddles, also known as saddle-bows
prerogative
a special privilege or right
Prydain
Britain (sometimes excluding Scotland/Pictland).
Pryden
sometimes Britain, sometimes Scotland/Pictland
red gold
gold alloyed with copper
retainers
servants, dependents, or attendants of a person of rank
retinue
people who serve or follow a sovereign or high-ranking individual
roebuck
the male of the roe deer (a type of small deer).
rowels
small spiked wheels to be found on spurs (devices worn on riders’ heels to urge on a horse).
sendal
a thin, light, silken material
sheath
a case or covering in which a sword, dagger or knife is placed when not in use; scabbard
squire
a young man of good birth who is in the service of a knight
standards
military or naval flags
steward
someone who supervises the domestic arrangements of a household or estate
sucking-pigs
(sometimes, suckling pigs) young pigs that are slaughtered while still dependent on their mothers’ milk
suppliants
those who make humble requests or entreaties (see also: petitioners)
surcoat
an overcoat, usually made of rich fabric
thong
a narrow strip of leather used as a lace
torque
a neck ornament, bracelet or armband made from twisted metal
totnes cloth
totenais (a type of cloth associated with the town of Totenais or Totnes in Devon)
tridents
three-pronged spears used in fishing
vassals
subordinates ; within the feudal system, those who hold land on condition that they offer allegiance to a lord or master
venomous
capable of inflicting poisonous wounds
visor
part of a helmet covering the face, which can be raised and lowered
whelp
the young of a dog; a puppy
whetstone
a stone used to smooth or sharpen the edges of cutting tools
wrack
the common name for various types of brown seaweed in the family Fucaceae
yardarms
(sometimes yard-arms) either end of a yard (a strong pole which supports a sail).