A French writer of poems, plays and novels, Pierre Jules Théophile Gautier (1811–1872) was admired by many writers, including Wilde. Gautier was also a literary critic and a journalist. He defended Romanticism, but also influenced other literary movements such as Modernism and Symbolism. In Emaux et Camées, considered his highest poetic achievement, Gautier abandoned his romantic ambition to focus on the form rather than the subject of poetry. Beginning as a collection of 18 poems in 1852, it had grown to 37 poems by 1872.