Babylonia was a region in ancient Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq) which existed from around the 18th until 6th century BC. Its main power existed between 1894 and 1500 BC (dates approximate), but it remained an important religious and cultural centre of the Mesopotamian area, which came under the rule of various empires including the Persians, Hittites, Kassites and Assyrians. The capital of the region was the city-state of Babylon, whose Hanging Gardens were one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The ruins of Babylon can be found in Iraq and much cultural evidence of Babylonia has survived to the present day.
Friezes were a common part of Babylonian art and architecture. Buildings were made of mud-brick as there was a lack of stone in the area, and columns and frescoes were typical features of the buildings. Temples especially, but other buildings too, were lavishly decorated with painted tiles, murals, friezes and three-dimensional statues. Walls were often plated with gold or embedded with the few precious gemstones which could be found.