"The Pony" was a popular 60s dance that originated from the song "Pony Time" by Chubby Checker. It includes various arm and hand motions that are sometimes cowboy-like.
Karl Marx was a German philosopher, sociologist, historian, political economist, political theorist and revolutionary socialist, who developed the socio-political theory of Marxism. His Marxist ideas played a significant role in both the development of modern social science and also in the socialist political movement.
Henry Kissinger served as the 56th Secretary of State and the 8th National Security Advisor. He played an important role in US foreign policy. He extended the policy of détente, which was introduced in the 1970s, relaxing tensions between the Soviet Union and the US.
A pagne, or wrapper, is a type of clothing commonly worn by women in West Africa. Pagne is an umbrella term, and it can mean anything from a loincloth to a full ensemble of draped clothing.
A pagne is usually worn with a matching headscarf or head tie. The type described in this passage appears to be "fancy print," which is an informal and less expensive type.