Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler in 1937
Public DomainBenito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler in 1937 - Credit: Muzej Revolucije Narodnosti Jugoslavije

 Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) founded and led Italy's National Fascist Party.

He maintained a fascist dictatorship in Italy between 1922 and 1943, and began using the title Il Duce (The Leader) in 1925.

Following Italy's support for Nazi Germany in World War II, Mussolini was eventually executed by Italian partisans in 1945.


Listen on Spotify to Giovinezza (Youth), the unofficial national anthem of Italy between 1924 and 1943, with lyrics commisioned by Mussolini.