In Scotland at this time, ‘Whig’ was a derisive term for a radical Presbyterian faction of the Covenanters (see note for page 38). Also known as the Kirk Party, the Whigs opposed the Engagement with Charles I – this being a secret treaty in which the Covenanters proposed a military alliance in exchange for Charles’ agreement to support the establishment of Presbyterianism in England. The Kirk Party’s General Assembly was recognised in Scottish civil law, and their denouncement of the Engagers led to the latter being banned from holding public office. The faction crowned Charles II as monarch in 1651 after the assassination of Charles I. This was done in exchange for his endorsement of the Treaty of Breda (1650), in which he agreed to establish Presbyterianism as the national religion and to recognise the Kirk Party within English civil law. However, as Scotland had by that time been defeated by Cromwell’s army, the treaty was already meaningless.