This faction comprised supporters of the contemporaneously-named ‘Glorious Revolution’ of 1688. Fears surrounding the Catholicism of King James II (VII of Scotland) came to a head when he fathered a son and the prospect of a Catholic succession seemed altogether too likely. Both Whigs and Tories united on this issue and invited the Dutch William of Orange and his consort Mary (who also happened to be James’s daughter) to England. William’s army invaded the country and, in the ensuing battles, James’s deserted him, whereupon the monarch fled to France. This was treated as an abdication and the Protestant William III and Mary II were installed in his stead. After their ascendancy, the Bill of Rights was established, ensuring that never again would a monarch be able to curtail the religious and social freedom of his or her subjects.