"William James"
William James (1842 – 1910), American psychologist and philosopher, pioneering and highly influential; brother of writer Henry James. Among other subjects, William James wrote on the psychology of religious experience and mysticism.

James closely studied the philosophies of associationism and spiritualism. His own beliefs combined the two schools of thought. James believed that everyone has a soul, which exists in a spiritual universe and leads them to action in the physical world.  According to James, people use associations to move from one event to the next, but the soul must tie everything together, determining the direction of the associations.