Belote is a French card game, invented around 1920.
French: " You're crazy, son".
Józef Klemens Piłsudski (1867–1935), Chief of State (1918–22), "First Marshal" (from 1920) and (1926–35) the authoritarian leader of the Second Polish Republic, de facto dictator of Poland.
In 1922, then Chief of State Gabriel Narutowicz was shot dead by a right-wing painter and art critic who had originally wanted to kill Piłsudski.
Maurice Polydore Marie Bernard, Count Maeterlinck (1862-1949), Belgian playwright, poet, and essayist; Nobel laureate in literature (1911).
Of Ruysbroek, Maeterlinck wrote, "He knows, though he is unaware of it, the Platonism of Greece, the Sufism of Persia, the Brahmanism of India, and the Buddhism of Thibet."
Plotinus (CE 204–270), philosopher, founder of Neoplatonism. He posited an alternative to ex nihilo (out of nothing): ex deo (out of God).
Dionysius the Areopagite was the judge of the Areopagus who, as related in the Acts of the Apostles (Acts 17:34), was converted to Christianity by the preaching of the Apostle Paul. To him was attributed a series of mystical writings, but this is disputed. The reference is likely to the anonymous author of these writings, known as Pseudo-Dionysius. In addition to these teachings he is known for his portrayal of via negativa. Negative theology is an attempt to achieve unity with the Divine Good through discernment, gaining knowledge of what God is not, rather than by describing what God is.
Jakob Böhme (1575–1624), German Christian mystic and theologian, considered an original thinker within the Lutheran tradition. Boehme had a mystical vision, which he incorporated into his theology; he believed that in order to reach God, man must first pass through hell. God exists without time or space, he regenerates himself through eternity.
Eckhart von Hochheim (c1260–c1328), commonly known as Meister Eckhart, German theologian, philosopher, and mystic, belonged to the Dominican Order. One of his sermons on the "highest virtue of disinterest" conforms to the Buddhist concept of detachment and more contemporarily, Kant's "disinterestedness."
Kosti's subjects are all Neoplatonists.
This phrase recalls the philosophical argument, first posed by Parmenides and usually framed in Latin, "Ex nihilo nihil fit", that the world has always existed.
According to legend, Ursula, a Romano-British princess, set sail to join her future husband, a pagan of Brittany, along with 11,000 virginal handmaidens. A storm brought them over the sea in a single day. Ursula declared that before her marriage she would undertake a pan-European pilgrimage. In Rome she persuaded the Pope, Cyriacus (unknown in the pontifical records), and Sulpicius, Bishop of Ravenna, to join here and her followers. Cologne was being besieged by Huns, and it was there that all the virgins were beheaded. Ursula was shot dead.
A German trick-taking card game played with 32 cards.
The flight of the alone to the Alone is part of the fourth state of consciousness, the mystical marriage, the union of God and His creature. The Dark Night of the Soul is a metaphor for a person's spiritual desolation.
W.H. Auden would not write "Brothers who when the sirens roar..." until 1932; he is clearly familiar with these concepts:
Dare-devil mystic who bear the scars
Of many spiritual wars
And smoothly tell
The starving that their one salvation
Is personal regeneration
By fasting, prayer and contemplation;
Is it? Well,
Others have tried it, all delight
Sustained in that ecstatic flight
Could not console
When through exhausting hours they’d flown
From the alone to the Alone,
Nothing remained but the dry-as-bone
Night of the soul.
French: "Youth is fleeting".
Joseph, the 11th of Jacob's 12 sons, in the Book of Genesis, was tricked by his brothers and sold when was 17 years old to Potiphar. He resisted the attempts of his employer's wife to seduce him, after which she brought accusations against him and Joseph was thrown into prison.
Astor Street is a historic district of Chicago. It was designated a landmark, and it is the address of the most expensive home in Chicago.
A small hunting lodge built for Electress Maria Amalia in the European Rococo style.
The opening lines of "Hellas," a poem by Percy Bysshe Shelley about ancient Turkish attacks on Greece. Written in 1921, it was the last of his poems published in his lifetime.
A painting by Tiziano Vecelli (c1488–1576), Italian painter, leader of 16th-century Venetian school of the Italian Renaissance.
"To these must certainly be added that other saying of one of the wittiest of men: ‘Good Americans, when they die, go to Paris.’" — O.W. Holmes in Autocrat of Breakfast-Table vi, 1858, alluding to Thomas Gold Appleton.
"They say that when good Americans die they go to Paris." — O. Wilde in Woman of no Importance I. l. 16, 1894.
Elliott paraphrases the title line from William Wordsworth's 1807 poem, "The world is too much with us."
The most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States.