"an elaborate ruff, beneath his gray beard, in the antiquated fashion of King James’s reign"

James I of England (and VI of Scotland) was the predecessor of the current monarch, Charles I. Born in 1566, he ascended the Scottish throne just a year later. When England and Scotland were allied through the Union of the Crowns in 1603, he gained the rule of both kingdoms and retained it until his death in 1625. Contemporary portraits show him in a variety of ostentatious ruffs.

Portrait of James I Stuart. (c.1620)
Public DomainPortrait of James I Stuart. (c.1620) - Credit: Frans Pourbus the younger
James I (c.1605)
Public DomainJames I (c.1605) - Credit: John De Critz the Elder