"That he now breathes, and creeps about on earth, is owing all to me!"

This striking exclamation carries echoes of the Creation as relayed in the Book of Genesis: 

And God made..every thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind… And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion..over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. (Genesis 1:25-6)

Chillingworth, who has indeed created Dimmesdale as he currently is, has thus usurped God. This act once more allies him with Satan who, as Lucifer, attempted to overthrow the Lord of Heaven and install himself in his place. 

Elohim creating Adam (c.1805)
Public DomainElohim creating Adam (c.1805) - Credit: William Blake