Page 1. " He doesn’t think of doctrines as primarily ‘true’ or ‘false’ "

Renaissance scholars, such as Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, believed that absolute truth existed and reasoned that the only way to learn it was to study the past and the whole of human knowledge. The great thinkers of the time studied everything from ancient Greek and Roman writings, to the works of pagan, Christian, Jewish and Muslim scholars. This belief in absolute truth began to change in the 16th Century, however, when the writings of an ancient Greek philosopher called Pyrrho became popular. Pyrrho believed that absolute truth did not exist and that nothing could be known for certain. To some extent, this worldview continues to this day.

Der Philosoph Pyrrhon in stürmischer See (SEA)
Public DomainDer Philosoph Pyrrhon in stürmischer See (Pyrrho at Sea)


Page 1. " your best ally in keeping him from the Church "

Canterbury Cathedral
GNU Free Documentation LicenseCanterbury Cathedral
The phrase ‘the Church’ has more than one meaning. As written here, it refers to all followers of Jesus, ‘to those sanctified in Christ Jesus and called to be holy, together with all those everywhere who call on the name of our Lord Jesus Christ’ (1 Corinthians 1:2). The phrase does not refer to the Church of England, the head of the Anglican body, which combines traditions and practices of the Catholic Church with doctrinal principles of the Protestant Reformation. The Mother Church of the Church of England is Canterbury Cathedral in Canterbury, England.


Page 2. " you awake the patient’s reason "
Saint Peter
Public DomainSaint Peter
Saint Paul Writing His Epistles
Public DomainSaint Paul Writing His Epistles
The apostle Paul did not believe that faith was a result of emotion or blind devotion. Acts 18:19 says he ‘reasoned with the Jews’ in a synagogue. He also defended Jesus’ death and resurrection as ‘true and reasonable’ (Acts 26:25).

Peter also defended the faith as reasonable and urged followers of Christ to 'always be prepared to give an answer to everyone who asks you to give a reason for the hope that you have' (1 Peter 3:15).

Page 2. " that abominable advantage of the Enemy’s "

The Temptation of Christ
Public DomainThe Temptation of Christ
John the Evangelist
Public DomainJohn the Evangelist
Christians believe that Jesus of Nazareth was both fully God and fully man. So although he was God, he experienced the same joys, temptations, heartaches and physical pain as other humans. The apostle John cautioned believers to ‘test the spirits’: only those who acknowledged that ‘Jesus Christ has come in the flesh [in a human body]’ were truly from God (1 John 4:1-3).



Page 2. " a sound atheist, who used to read in the British Museum "

An atheist is someone who does not believe in supernatural forces or powers.  According to a 2005 Eurobarometer poll, approximately 20 percent of UK residents 'do not believe there is a Spirit, God, nor life force'.

Sir Hans Sloane
Public DomainSir Hans Sloane

The British Museum opened to the public in 1759 in Bloomsbury, an area in central London. The collection consisted of books, manuscripts, prints, drawings, flora, fauna, medals, coins, seals and cameos that belonged to the late physician and scientist Sir Hans Sloane, the inventor of hot chocolate. The collection was worth approximately £20,000. Today, the museum has more than 7 million objects, and the number of annual visitors has increased from 5,000 to nearly 6 million. 

British Museum
GNU Free Documentation LicenseBritish Museum


Page 3. " I showed him a newsboy shouting the midday paper "

The newsboy profession dates back to the late 1800s. Most newsboys were children, some as young as six years old, who would stand at busy intersections and shout the headlines of the day.

Page 4. " do not attempt to use science "

Many people believe science and faith are incompatible. Evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins claimed, for example, that ‘evolution is God’s redundancy notice, his pink slip’. Not all scientists interpret the evidence in the same way, however. Oxford mathematics professor John Lennox, author of God's Undertaker - Has Science Buried God?, believes the evidence 'points to a Creator'.


Page 5. " your patient has become a Christian "

Jesus, 6th Century Mosaic
Public DomainJesus, 6th Century Mosaic
A Christian is, literally, a ‘follower of Christ’. Christians not only adhere to the teachings of Jesus Christ, but they also believe that Jesus is God in the flesh and put their trust in him as the saviour of all humanity.


Page 5. " the half-finished, sham Gothic erection "

Gothic architecture originated in 12th Century France and was popular until the 16th Century. It is characterised by pointed arches, ribbed vaults and flying buttresses. In the mid-18th Century, many English churches and universities began to construct buildings in the Gothic style. This period was known as a Gothic revival.


Page 6. " an expression like ‘the body of Christ’ "

‘The body of Christ’ is another term for the church as a whole, as indicated by Paul in his letter to the Church of Corinth in Greece: ‘The body is a unit, though it is made up of many parts; and though all its parts are many, they form one body. So it is with Christ. For we were all baptized by one Spirit into one body—whether Jews or Greeks, slave or free—and we were all given the one Spirit to drink' (1 Corinthians 12:12-13). ‘If one part suffers, every part suffers with it; if one part is honored, every part rejoices with it. Now you are the body of Christ, and each one of you is a part of it' (1 Corinthians 12:26-27).

It is also a reference to Luke 22:19, in which Jesus broke bread at the Last Supper and said, 'This is my body given to you; do this in rememberence of me'.

The Last Supper, Leonardo da Vinci
Public DomainThe Last Supper, Leonardo da Vinci


Page 6. " his mind is full of togas and sandals and armour and bare legs "

Although the first Christians were Jewish, the faith spread quickly throughout the Roman Empire. The New Testament makes numerous references to the empire and its leaders, including Claudius, who ruled from AD 41 to 54. Other emperors of the time included Caesar Augustus, who ruled from 27 BC to AD 14; Tiberius, who reigned at the time of Jesus' crucifixion (AD 14 to AD 37); and Caligula (AD 37 to 41).

Page 7. " enchanted in the nursery by Stories from the Odyssey "

Stories from the Odyssey, by H.L. Havell, was published in 1913. It is a collection of stories based on The Odyssey, Homer's epic poem about Odysseus, the legendary Greek king of Ithaca. The poem tells the tale of his 10-year journey home following the fall of Troy.

Odysseus and the Sirens (The Odyssey)
Creative Commons AttributionOdysseus and the Sirens (The Odyssey)


Page 7. " his ‘free’ lovers and servants "

Joshua Crossing the Jordan River
Public DomainJoshua Crossing the Jordan River
There are a number of Bible passages that suggest God wants his people to choose to worship him freely, without obligation:

'But if serving the LORD seems undesirable to you, then choose for yourselves this day whom you will serve, whether the gods your forefathers served beyond the River, or the gods of the Amorites, in whose land you are living. But as for me and my household, we will serve the LORD' (Joshua 24:15).

'Do not envy a violent man or choose any of his ways' (Proverbs 3:31). 



Page 8. " a fanatical bridgeplayer "

Contract Bridge is a four-player card game that is closely related to Whist. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the name comes from the word Biritch (Russian Whist).

Page 8. " their religion is mere hypocrisy "

Jesus Debates the Pharisees
Public DomainJesus Debates the Pharisees
Throughout the Gospels, Jesus deals more harshly with religious hypocrites than with other types of sinners, including prostitutes and thieves. He called such religious leaders 'snakes' and 'a brood of vipers', accused them of being full of 'greed and self-indulgence', and warned them that they were like whitewashed tombs: 'beautiful on the outside but on the inside are full of dead men's bones and everything unclean' (Matthew 23). 


Page 8. " his sinfulness is all parrot talk "

Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden
Public DomainAdam and Eve in the Garden of Eden
Man's sinfulness is one of the major tenets of Christianity. Christians believe that when Adam and Eve ate the fruit from the tree of knowledge of good and evil, sin entered the world. The sin caused a rift, or separation, between man and God. But Christians also believe that Jesus can restore the relationship between man and God. They believe that when Jesus died on the cross, and spent three subsequent days in hell, he took the punishment of sin upon himself. 


Page 11. " Keep his mind off the most elementary duties "

The Bible (New International Version) has 178 references relating to the poor, 55 references to the needy, and 39 references to the fatherless. Throughout the Bible, believers are reminded that caring for others - especially those in need - should be a top priority.

Page 12. " impossible to prevent his praying "

Christians are called to devote themselves to prayer (Colossians 4:2). They are instructed to 'pray in the Spirit on all occasions with all kinds of prayers and requests' (Ephesians 6:8) and to 'not be anxious about anything, but in everything, by prayer and petition, with thanksgiving, present your requests to God' (Philippians 4:6).

They are also called to pray, among other things, for God's will in their lives (Romans 1:10), for the peace of Jerusalem (Psalm 122:6) and salvation of the Israelites (Romans 10:1), for the love and knowledge of God (Philippians 1:9), and for the sick (James 5:14). 

Jesus in Prayer
Public DomainJesus in Prayer


Page 13. " he learned to dislike in the nursery "
Creative Commons AttributionNursery
In wealthy English homes, the nursery was a suite of rooms at the top of a house where the children slept, ate and played. The nursery usually had a schoolroom as well. A nanny or nursemaid often lived with the children in an adjacent suite of rooms.  


Page 14. " Remember the elder brother in the Enemy’s story? "

Luke 15:11-32 tells the Parable of the Lost Son, in which a young man squanders his inheritance before returning home and asking for forgiveness. The young man's father rejoices and plans a feast to celebrate his return, but the elder brother reacts in anger.

'The older brother became angry and refused to go in. So his father went out and pleaded with him. But he answered his father, "Look! All these years I've been slaving for you and never disobeyed your orders. Yet you never gave me even a young goat so I could celebrate with my friends. But when this son of yours who has squandered your property with prostitutes comes home, you kill the fattened calf for him!"' (Luke 15:28-30).

Page 16. " One of their poets, Coleridge "

Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834) was an English poet, literary critic and philosopher. He is best known for the poems The Rime of the Ancient Mariner and Kubla Khan, as well as his critical work of Shakespeare. He also coined many popular phrases, such as 'suspension of disbelief'.


Page 17. " He pours out self-knowledge "

Sermon on the Mount (Jesus Teaching)
Public DomainSermon on the Mount (Jesus Teaching)
It is possible to 'know' God, according to the Bible. Proverbs 2 promises that a believer will 'find the knowledge of God' if he seeks it. Jesus said, 'the knowledge of the secrets of the kingdom of God' has been given to those who believe (Luke 8:10). He also said, 'If you really knew me, you would know my Father as well' (John 14:7).

Paul told the Church of Corinth that God 'always leads us in triumphal procession in Christ and through us spreads everywhere the fragrance of the knowledge of him' (2 Corinthians 2:14). And 'to the man who pleases him, God gives wisdom, knowledge and happiness' (Ecclesiastes 2:26).


Page 17. " that ghastly luminosity, that stabbing and searing glare "

Daniel 7:9 and Revelation 1:14 describe Jesus as having hair as white as snow, eyes like blazing fire and feet like bronze glowing in a furnace. God is also described as 'light; in him there is no darkness at all' (1 John 1:5). Revelation 21:23 says the city of God will 'not need the sun or the moon to shine on it, for the glory of God gives it light, and the Lamb is its lamp'.

The Israelites Meet With Jehovah
GNU Free Documentation LicenseThe Israelites Meet With Jehovah


Page 18. " episode known as the Incarnation "
The Baptism of Christ
Public DomainThe Baptism of Christ

The word Incarnation comes from the Latin terms 'in' (in, into) and 'carno' or 'carni' (flesh): 'to make into flesh' or 'to become flesh'. The official definition, according to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, is 'the embodiment of a diety or spirit in some earthly form'.

The word refers to the Christian belief that Jesus is God in the flesh. John 1:14 says, 'the Word became flesh'; furthermore, the New Testament refers to the man, Jesus, as 'God and Saviour'.


Page 18. " images associated with the other two Persons "

Christians believe in the Godhead, a term that is used three times in the New Testament: Acts 17:29, Romans 1:20 and Colossians 2:9 (King James Version). It refers to the belief that God exists in three Persons: God, Jesus and the Holy Spirit. In other words, although there is only one God, he exists in three distinct forms.

Page 18. " a crucifix on the wall "
The Crucufixion
GNU Free Documentation LicenseThe Crucifixion

Although the cross has become the symbol for Christianity, it actually represents 'the most wretched of deaths', according to First Century historian Josephus. He also called the act of crucifixion - nailing a human being to a cross - 'inhuman'.  

The story of Jesus' crucifixion is related in all four Gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke and John).

Page 21. " the European humans have started another of their wars "

World War II began on September 1, 1939, following the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany. On September 3, British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain announced on BBC Radio that Britain had declared war on Germany.

Page 22. " a brim-full living chalice "

Christ with the Eucharist
Public DomainChrist with the Eucharist
In the Christian tradition, the cup Jesus used at the Last Supper is known as the Holy Chalice. 'Then he took the cup, gave thanks and offered it to them, saying, "Drink from it, all of you. This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins. I tell you, I will not drink of this fruit of the vine from now on until that day when I drink it anew with you in my Father's kingdom"' (Matthew 26:27-29).

Some Christians believe the original chalice, which they call the Holy Grail, was used to collect Jesus' blood after the crucifixion. Other Christians believe the apostle Peter took the cup with him to Rome after Jesus used it at the Last Supper. Most people, Catholics in particular, simply believe the wine consecrated in mass becomes the figurative 'blood of Christ' and so all church chalices are considered sacred.

The Bible itself does not suggest Jesus' cup was of any significance.


Page 22. " an extreme patriot or an ardent pacifist "

Although most Britons were supportive of the WWII war effort, a large number of people were outspoken pacifists. Many were Christian. Nearly 60,000 men and 1,000 women applied for an exemption from military service. A tribunal decided their fate: 3,000 were given unconditional exemption; 18,000 applications were dismissed; and the rest were tasked with civilian work or registered as non-combatants.




Page 23. " we shall see thousands turning in this tribulation to the Enemy "

Although many people turn away from God during wartime, there are others who find comfort in faith. WWII soldiers on the front line, especially, needed something to believe in, and often held services 'behind the bomb-shattered and the bullet-scarred walls of any building that would serve the purpose'. As one WWII soldier on the front lines explained, 'We were closer to God than we'd ever been, unlike so many services held in Canada and in England when other things were on our young minds...Never had a hymn meant so much to us as it did in those unlikely places of worship.'

Page 23. " what undesirable deaths occur in wartime "
The Ruins of Warsaw
Public DomainThe Ruins of Warsaw
WWII was the deadliest war in history. Historians estimate that between 50 and 70 million people died. Military deaths totalled 22 to 25 million.

Footage shot by American troops shows the horror of the concentration camps. WARNING: Graphic


Page 24. " withholding all suggestion of a priest "
Annointing the Sick (Last Rites)
Public DomainAnnointing the Sick (Last Rites)

According to the Catholic Church, Annointing the Sick (formerly known as Last Rites) 'commends the sick to the suffering and glorified Lord, asking that he lighten their suffering and save them.' The Catechism of the Catholic Church says the sick should be 'assisted by their pastor and the whole ecclesial community, which is invited to surround the sick in a special way through their prayers and fraternal attention.'

Page 24. " suffering is an essential part of what He calls Redemption "
The Crucifixion of Saint Peter
Public DomainThe Crucifixion of Saint Peter
Suffering, according to the New Testament writers, 'produces perseverance' and is necessary so that believers might share in Christ's glory. The apostle Peter believed followers of Jesus should rejoice when they 'participate in the sufferings of Christ'.

One of the tenets of Christianity is that Jesus saved humanity from eternal damnation when he died on the cross and descended into hell. The word Redemption, in historical terms, meant buying a slave's freedom. In a spiritual sense, Jesus paid for humanity's freedom from sin with his own life. As Paul explained to the believers in Corinth, 'You are not your own; you were bought at a price.'



Page 24. " destroyed by a war or pestilence "
The Black Death
Public DomainThe Black Death
The Dance of Death
Public DomainThe Dance of Death
In addition to the loss of life caused by two World Wars and countless other, smaller wars, Europe lost 30 to 60 percent of its population when the Black Death peaked between 1348 and 1350. The bacterial disease killed an estimated 100 million people.
Page 25. " he will be called up for military service "

The 8th Royal Scots
Public DomainThe 8th Royal Scots
With the enactment of the National Service (Armed Forces) Act of 1939, British men between 18 and 40 could be called up at any time for military service. The age limit was raised to 51 in 1941, and single women between 20 and 30 were added to the list of those required to perfom some sort of war service.

Page 25. " he is to say, ‘Thy will be done’ "
Christ Walking on Water
Public DomainChrist Walking on Water

The phrase 'Thy will be done' is part of the Lord's prayer, as found in Matthew 6:9-10 and Luke 11:2-4 (King James Version).

'Our Father which art in heaven, Hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come, Thy will be done in earth, as it is in heaven.'

Page 25. " the present fear as his appointed cross "
Public DomainCross
Jesus told his disciples that a believer must be willing to 'take up his cross and follow me'. The cross is a strong symbol: not only does it represent Jesus' death and resurrection (God's power over death), but it also represents God's love for us, as well as the Christian duty to give up everything for the good of another. It also represents the struggles, temptations and hardships that every Christian must face.