Another reference to classic crime writing. Raymond Chandler (1888-1959) was an American writer who had an enormous influence on the development of the private detective genre. Philip Marlowe, Chandler's famous detective, appears in seven novels and dozens of short stories which transcend the pulp fiction genre for which they were written. Chandler's work has often been adapted to film. His novel The Big Sleep became a famous 1946 film starring Humphrey Bogart and Lauren Bacall.