Austrian Academy Corpus
Karl Kraus (1874-1936) founded Die Fackel/The Torch in 1899. He single-handedly wrote, edited and published 922 issues of the journal until his death. It was a platform for his observations on society, for his attacks on hypocrisy, pschoanalysis, corruption in the Habsburg Empire, the nationalism of the pan-German movement, laissez-faire economic policies, and numerous other topical subjects. From 1911 on he was, for the most part, the sole author of each issue.
Maximillianstrasse was named for the emperor's ill-fated brother, shot in 1867 after an abortive attempt to become Emperor of Mexico. The street was renamed Mahlerstrasse soon after World War I when the Empire had collapsed and there was a wholesale renaming of streets, squares, parks, and bridges.
Klemens von Metternich (1773-1859) served as the Foreign Minister of the Empire from 1809 until the revolutions of 1848 forced his resignation. He led the Austrian delegation at the Congress of Vienna which divided post-Napoleonic Europe between the major powers. Their main aim was to avoid further wars and, more importantly, avoid revolution. Thus, their aim was to preserve the status quo of the various monarchies. His famous statement, "Asia begins at the Landstrasse", refers to the Landstrasse, the main highway leading from Vienna east into Hungary, which was not considered part of Europe proper.
Introduced by Emperor Maximillian II in 1562 for military puposes, the Lipizzaner Stallions take their name from the imperial stud farm established in 1580 in Lipizza, Italy. They perform under the auspices of Der Spanische Reitschule (the Spanish Riding School) in Vienna, which takes it name from the Spanish heritage of the breed. These superbly trained horses perform to this day in Vienna.
For the capriole, the horse jumps in place, tucking its forelegs under its body while simultaneously kicking out with its hind legs; the levade has the horse standing back on its hind legs at a 30-degree angle which requires tremendous hindquarter strength.
Construction of the Rathaus - literally "advice house" - took place from 1872-1883 as part of the wholesale building up of the newly constructed Ringstrasse. Designed by German architect Ferdinand von Schmidt in a neo-Gothic style, it is home to the offices of the Mayor of Vienna as well as offices and chambers of the Vienna City Council.
Hermann Bielolawek (1861-1918) was a virulently anti-Semitic Christian Social (the party founded by Karl Lueger in 1893). He rose from a merchant background as Vice President of the Association of Commercial Employees to Vienna City Councilman from 1900 to 1918. Karl Kraus called him a buffoon and even Mayor Lueger and many of the Christian Socials considered him as something akin to a court jester. Nevertheless, although his influence waned as the years passed, he managed to be re-elected year after year.
In 1894, Alfred Dreyfuss, a French officer of the artillery, was convicted for giving military secrets to the Germans. It was a political scandal that divided France and Europe as well, as it was perceived that he was being tried more for being a Jew than for treason. He was sent to the penal colony on Devil's Island in French Guiana. Two years later, proof of both his innocence and of the real guilty party was suppresed by the army. After spending almost five years under the most inhumane of conditions, he was brought back to France and finally exonerated of all charges. He was reinstated into the military in 1906 and served with distinction through World War I.
Dating from the 16th century, Hanswurst was a comical buffoon character of the German stage. Using crude sexual and scatalogical humor, Hanswursts played to the lowbrow audiences up through the time of this story.
Ottakring is in the 16th District of Vienna. The former village of Ottakring was annexed into Vienna proper in 1892. At the time of the story, Ottakring was was an area of industies and factories, the population primarily working class. It is still a manufacturing center and includes the Ottakring Brewery and coffee giant Julius Meinl as its most famous businesses.
Ludwig van Beethoven's funeral drew a crowd that was estimated to be from 10,000 to 30,000 people. His funeral mass was held at the Dreifaltigkeits Kirche/Church of the Holy Trinity on Alserstrasse. He was buried in Währinger Cemetery. In 1888, his remains, along with those of Franz Schubert, were moved to Vienna's Zentralfriedhof- Central Cemetery.
Founded in 1876 by Eduard Sacher, the Hotel Sacher is one of the most famous hotels in Vienna. After his death in 1882, management of the hotel was taken over by his wife, the twenty-three year old Anna who ran the hotel until her death in 1929. Under her guidance, Hotel Sacher became internationally famous hosting celebrities and royalty from the Habsburgs to the present. Hotel Sacher is also home of the Original Sachertorte, the sinfully delicious chocolate cake with apricot filling.