"With this infernal heat, the city is like Hades itself. And we can hardly breathe for the soot and smoke "
Pittsburgh pollution - John L. Alexandrowicz, Photographer
By 1914 Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania was heavily industrialized, producing half of the nation’s steel, and making industrialists and bankers, like Andrew Carnegie and the Mellons, fabulously wealthy. Like many others who could afford to escape the city's heat and pollution, the Mellon family owned an island in Muskoka, where descendants still summer. The area around Beaumaris became known as "Little Pittsburgh" as well as "Millionaires' Row".
This photo gives an idea of what the pollution must have been like in Pittsburgh. Note that effluence from the mill is also spewing into the river.