Lutheranism and the Episcopal Church are denominations of Christianity. There are various Lutheran churches, but they all identify with the theology of the German reformer Martin Luther, associated with the launch of the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century. Lutherans believe the Bible is accessible enough for believers to understand their Christian duties that members of the clergy are not required to explain the real meaning of the Bible. The Episcopal Church is a mainly United States-based denomination that broke away from the Church of England after the American Revolution because its clergy were required to pledge allegiance to the British monarch. The Episcopal Church defines its doctrine as the middleground between Protestantism and Catholicism, or a balance between scripture, tradition and reason, though there are many different positions held within the Church. Since the 1960s and 1970s the Episcopal Church has opposed the death penalty and supported civil rights.