Page 351. " we are sure that she puts laud'num in his milk "

Public DomainLaudanum - Credit: Cydone, Wikimedia Commons
 Laudanum is a solution of opium and alcohol, also known as tincture of opium. It is highly addictive.

It was available in Britain from the late 17th Century onwards, and was used for pain relief, inducing sleep, and for the treatment of various medical ailments in both adults and children.

Thomas de Quincey (1785-1859) gave an account of his addiction to laudanum in his book Confessions of an English Opium-Eater (1821).

Page 362. " There was a good supply of shilling classics - Longfellow, Dickens "

A shilling was a pre-decimalisation British coin worth the equivalent of 5 new pence.


George V shilling
Public DomainGeorge V shilling - Credit: Welkinridge, Wikimedia Commons


Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
Public DomainHenry Wadsworth Longfellow - Credit: F.F. Stuart
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-1882) was a popular American poet whose best-known works include The Song of Hiawatha and Evangeline.

Charles Dickens (1812-1870) is probably the most famous English Victorian novelist; his works include Oliver Twist, David Copperfield, Great Expectations and A Christmas Carol.

David Copperfield on Book Drum

Page 362. " Walt Whitman's Leaves of Grass "

Walt Whitman
Public DomainWalt Whitman - Credit: Samuel Hollyer
 Walt Whitman (1819-1892) was a somewhat controversial American poet, journalist and essayist whose work dealt with political issues such as slavery.

His poetry collection, Leaves of Grass, with its open discussion of sexual themes, was considered obscene in its day.


Extract from I Sing the Body Electric:


Ebb stung by the flow and flow stung by the ebb - love-flesh swelling and deliciously aching;

Limitless limpid jets of love hot and enormous, quivering jelly of love, white-blow and delirious juice;

Full text

Page 367. " a velvet tam-o'-shanter "
Tam o' Shanter
Creative Commons AttributionTam o' Shanter - Credit: istolethtv, Flickr
Tartan Tam o' Shanters
GNU Free Documentation LicenseTartan Tam o' Shanters - Credit: Dr Haggis, Wikimedia Commons

A Tam o' Shanter  is a hat with a tight-fitting headband and a loose, floppy crown. There is often a pompom or tassel at the centre. It is named after a character in a poem by Robert Burns.

Originally worn by Scottish men, and made only in blue, it was subsequently adopted by women and made in all sorts of colours and materials.

Page 374. " Bo Peep, from the nursery poem "

Little Bo peep illustration (1902)
Public DomainLittle Bo peep illustration (1902) - Credit: William Wallace Denslow
Little Bo peep has lost her sheep

And doesn't know where to find them.

Leave them alone, and they'll come home,

Bringing their tails behind them.


Full text  

Page 375. " he had moved to a house in Epping "
Epping Forest
Public DomainEpping Forest - Credit: Aarandir, Wikimedia Commons

Epping is a small town in Essex surrounded by the area of ancient woodland known as Epping Forest.


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