Page 102. " Tim was a liver-colored bird dog, the pet of Maycomb. "

A bird dog is a type of gun dog or hunting dog used to hunt or retrieve birds.

In the southern United States the term bird dog refers to breeds such as the pointer, English setter, Red setter, German shorthair pointer, and Brittany dogs.

Page 117. " Jem, armed with Ivanhoe and full of superior knowledge "

Ivanhoe is an 1819 historical novel by Sir Walter Scott. Set in the 12th century, it is the story of one of the last Saxon noble families, at a time when the English nobility was overwhelmingly Norman. It follows Wilfred of Ivanhoe, who is not on good terms with his father due to his allegiance to the Norman King Richard.

The book was also adapted for theatre and film:


Page 118. " Jem sat down in a cane-bottom chair and opened Ivanhoe. "
cane bottom chair
GNU Free Documentation Licensecane bottom chair - Credit:

The cane in these cane-bottom chairs is the bark from a vine. To be pliant and workable, cane needs to be soaked before it can be woven. Cane-bottom chairs are very popular, even to the point where the famous writer William Makepeace Thackeray wrote a poem about them:

But of all the cheap treasures that garnish my nest,

There is one that I love and I cherish the best:

For the finest of couches that's padded with hair

I never would change thee, my cane-bottom'd chair.

Page 122. " Alabama might go to the Rose Bowl again this year "

The Rose Bowl
Public DomainThe Rose Bowl - Credit: NASA

The Rose Bowl is an outdoor stadium in Pasadena, California, opened in 1922.  It was originally built as a horse-shoe, but the south end was later added to complete the bowl.

The stadium is the site of the annual college football game – the Rose Bowl – held on New Year's Day. It hosted events during the 1932 and 1984 Olympics, and was the venue for the 1994 FIFA World Cup Final and the 1999 FIFA Women's World Cup Final.

Page 123. " Mrs Dubose was a morphine addict,' said Atticus. 'She took it as a painkiller for years. "

Morphine is a narcotic that affects the central nervous system. Besides relieving pain, morphine impairs mental and physical performance, relieves fear and anxiety, and induces euphoria. Morphine's euphoric effects can be highly addictive. Tolerance (the need for higher and higher doses to achieve the same effect) and physical and psychological dependence quickly develop.

Withdrawal from morphine addiction causes nausea, chills and sweats, lasting up to three days.

Page 124. " a white, waxy, perfect camellia. It was a Snow-on-the-Mountain. "

Creative Commons AttributionCamellia - Credit: Margaret Anne Clarke
Camellias (such as the Snow-on-the-mountain) are plants native to eastern and southern Asia. They are evergreen shrubs or small trees, from 2–20 metres tall. Their leaves are thick, usually glossy, and their flowers are large and abundant, with colours varying from white to pink, and yellow to red. They have a fast growth rate, typically growing around 30cm a year.

The camellia is the state flower of Alabama.