Page 51. " How'd you like some fresh poundcake to take home? "
Hazelnut poundcake
Creative Commons AttributionHazelnut pound cake - Credit: Chotda

Poundcake is any type of cake made with equal measures of its four main ingredients: traditionally a pound of flour, butter, eggs, and sugar. The exact quantity depends upon the size of the cake that is desired. Therefore any cake made with a 1:1:1:1 ratio of flour, butter, eggs, and sugar is also called a pound cake.

There are numerous variations on the traditional pound cake, with certain countries and regions having distinctive styles. These can include the addition of flavourings (such as vanilla extract or almond extract) or dried fruit (such as currants or raisins).

In the Southern States of America, poundcake would contain one pound each of flour, butter, eggs, and sugar. In typical volume measurements, this is approximately three cups of flour, two cups of butter, eight large eggs, and almost three cups of sugar. Poundcake is considered a staple in the cuisine of the Southern United States. Typically they are not decorated in any way.

Page 56. " Jem whistled bob-white and Dill answered in the darkness. "

Bobwhite (also known as the Virginia Quail or Bobwhite Quail) is a ground-dwelling bird native to the United States, Mexico, and the Caribbean. Its body is brown, speckled in places with black or white. Its average weight is 140–170 g. 

The name "bobwhite" derives from its characteristic whistling call; it is a rising, clear whistle: bob-White! or bob-bob-White! The call is most often made by males in the spring and summertime. Other vocalizations include a range of squeaky whistles.

 

Page 58. " Don't get in a row of collards whatever you do "
collards
GNU Free Documentation Licensecollards - Credit: photobucket

 Collards are a loose-leafed plant that resemble cabbages. This plant has large and dark-coloured leaves that are edible. It is also used as a garden ornament in countries such as Brazil, Portugal and in the Southern United States.

Page 62. " the chinaberry trees were malignant, hovering, alive. "
chinaberry trees
Public Domainchinaberry trees - Credit: biology.edu
The chinaberry tree was introduced into the United States in the middle 1800s, brought from Asia. The tree is widely used in domestic gardens for its ornamental appearance.

It can reach a height of 50 feet and a width of 2 feet. The twigs are a glossy greenish brown with light dots. The chinaberry tree’s wood is soft and white. Its flowers bloom with five pinkish lavender through to white petals, and are very fragrant. It produces yellow berries in the winter.

 

Page 66. " they invented toilet paper and perpetual embalming "

Ancient Egyptians invented the first paper-like substance, called papyrus. Papyrus scrolls were made by taking slices of the inner part of the papyrus stem, flattening and then pounding them into a hard, thin sheet. The word "paper" comes from the word "papyrus".

Egyptians did not actually invent toilet paper: that honour goes to the Chinese, in around 500 AD. It was first 'invented' in the West by Joseph Gayetty in 1857.

The Egyptians did, however, invent embalming: the process of preserving a dead body, also known as 'mummification'. The earliest known Egyptian "mummified" individual dates back to approximately 3300 BC. Over 1 million animal mummies have been found in Egypt, many of them cats.

Page 69. " Someone had filled our knot-hole with cement. "
Tree hole
Creative Commons AttributionTree hole - Credit: uncleboatshoes
Nathan Radley does this for religious reasons, as he is a "foot-washing baptist'. This means he believes anything that produces pleasure is a sin. As the gifts in the tree hole were giving pleasure to the Finch children, they were therefore sinful.
Page 70. " Mr Avery said it was written on the Rosetta Stone "
The Rosetta Stone is a large black basalt slab bearing an inscription dating from the year 196 BC. It was the crucial key to deciphering Egyptian hieroglyphs, and the foundation of modern Egyptology. The Egyptian hieroglyphics on the stone are accompanied by a Greek translation, as well as one in Demotic (a form of Egyptian). As scholars were able to read the Greek, they could use it to decipher the Egyptian.

The inscription concerns the priests and the King of Egypt. It was a decree passed by a general council of priests on the first anniversary of the coronation of Ptolemy V Epiphanes - the 13 year old King of Egypt. The text concerns the honours bestowed on the king by the temples of Egypt in return for services rendered by him, both at home and abroad. Priestly privileges, particularly those of an economic nature, are listed in detail.

See more about the Rosetta Stone here.

Page 70. " except when she watered her cannas "
canna
GNU Free Documentation Licensecanna - Credit: plantationgarden

Cannas (called Canna lilies, although they are not actually lilies) have large colourful and attractive foliage and bright flowers. They also contain a rich amount of starch, and are grown for animal fodder.

Page 71. " It's snowing "
Snow in Madison, Alabama
Creative Commons AttributionSnow in Madison, Alabama - Credit: Bitman

Alabama is relatively hot, with an average annual temperature of 18 °C (64 °F).  Summers in Alabama are among the hottest in the United States, with high temperatures averaging over 32 °C (90 °F).

Average January minimum temperatures are around 4 °C (40 °F) in Mobile. Although snow is a rare event in much of Alabama, areas of the state north of Montgomery may receive a dusting of snow a few times every winter, with a moderately heavy snowfall every few years.