Page 102. " Lay your ladyship’s muff on a chair "

Young Lady with a Muff c 1750
Public DomainYoung Lady with a Muff c 1750 - Credit: François Boucher
A muff was a cylindrical fur cover, worn by fashionable ladies to keep their hands warm. 

Page 102. " As sweet as a nosegay "

Woman with a posy
Public DomainWoman with a posy - Credit: L. Prang & Co
A nosegay, or posy, is a small bouquet of flowers, usually given as a gift. The term originated in the 15th century, when gay meant ornament.  A nosegay was an ornament that appeals to the nose.

Page 104. " Prosai-comi-epic writing "

Fielding is describing his novel as a comic epic written in prose.  An epic generally follows the triumphs and travails of a heroic character, which Tom is, to some extent. However, he’s a roguish hero, and not immune from blunder and embarrassment. This, together with the antics of courser characters such as Partridge and Squire Western, ensures the comedic quality of the tale. 

Page 105. " The inventor of that most exquisite entertainment, called the English pantomime "

Pantomime poster 1890
Public DomainPantomime poster 1890 - Credit: F. Warne & Co.
A pantomime is a musical-comedy, usually performed over the Christmas period.  It originated in Ancient Greece, performed by a group who 'imitated all,' accompanied by sung narrative and music.  It provided entertainment for common people, embracing comedy, tragedy and sex, and was looked down upon by the literary elite. 

It first arrived in England in the Restoration period (from 1660), as something to entertain the audience between opera pieces.  It gained great popularity from 1717, on the basis of productions by actor and manager John Rich. 

Pantomime continues to be a popular form of theatre, combining song, dance, slapstick and silliness, cross-dressing, topical references, audience participation, and mild sexual innuendo.

Page 105. " The tricks of Harlequin to the better advantage "
Harlequin c1888
Public DomainHarlequin c1888 - Credit: Paul Cézanne

Harlequin is the best known of the comic servant characters from the Italian Commedia dell’arte, a form of pantomime theatre popular in Italy, and later France, from the 1500s The character is generally depicted as stupid and gluttonous, but nimble and acrobatic.  In early renderings of the genre, Harlequin often had a love interest whom he would pursue, generally without success.  He eventually became something of a romantic hero, and by the 18th century, a new style of pantomime, the Harlequinade, gave him a leading role. 

The Harlequinade revolves around a comic incident in the lives of its five main characters: Harlequin, who loves Columbine, her greedy father Pantaloon, who tries to separate the lovers in league with the mischievous Clown, and the servant, Pierrot.  There was often a chase scene with a policeman, and much slapstick and acrobatics.

Page 106. " If the work was as long as any of Oldmixon "

(see bookmark on page 15)

Page 107. " The second book of Tully’s Tusculan Questions "

Public DomainCicero - Credit: Visconti, 1885
The Tusculanae Disputationes (Tusculan Disputations) is a series of books written by Marcus Tullius Cicero, around 45BC, attempting to popularise Stoic philosophy in Ancient Rome.  The books were reportedly written at Cicero’s villa in Tusculum, hence the title. 

The Disputations consist of five books:

On the contempt of death;

On bearing pain;

On grief of mind;

On other perturbations of the mind; and

Whether virtue alone be sufficient for a happy life. 

Page 112. " What Diomede, or Thetis' greater son, A thousand ships, nor ten years seige had done, False fears, and fawning words, the city won "

Thetis dipping Achilles in the River Styx
Public DomainThetis dipping Achilles in the River Styx - Credit: Frans and Jan Raes, 1600s
Thetis (disposer, or the one who places), is depicted in Greek mythology as a goddess of water, one of the fifty Nereids, daughters of the ancient one of the seas.  She was one of the earliest of deities worshiped in archaic Greece. The wedding of Thetis and the Greek hero Peleus is one of the events leading up to the Trojan War.

Thetis Giving Achilles His Arms
Public DomainThetis Giving Achilles His Arms - Credit: Guilio Romano, 1500s

Thetis and Peleus’ son is Achilles.  Homer's Iliad tells of Achilles' deeds in the Trojan War. Achilles' wrath is the central theme of the book. Achilles withdraws from battle after he is dishonored by the Greek leader Agamemnon.  As the Greek forces are beaten back by the Trojans, it becomes clear to all that only Achilles can save the day.  This he does, when his friend Patroclus is killed in battle.  Achilles storms onto the battle field killing all in his path, and finally killing Hector, leader of the Trojans. 

Page 113. " resembling the great Delta of the Greeks "

Delta is the fourth letter of the Greek alphabet (Δ).  Its triangular shape is evident at the mouth of large rivers, such as the Nile, where the slow moving water spreads across the plain, depositing sediment before flowing into the sea.  The Greek’s called this area of a river the delta, after its shape. 

Nile delta
Public DomainNile delta - Credit: NASA

Page 115. " a certain liquorish part of natural philosophy "

In Fielding’s day, liquorish meant either lecherous or lustful, or appetizing or tempting.

Public DomainTemptation - Credit: Viktor Vasnetsov

Page 115. " like Mr. Constant in the play, wears a sword "

Rape upon Rape
Public DomainRape upon Rape - Credit: Henry Fielding
Rape upon Rape is a play by Henry Fielding.  It was first performed in 1730, at the Haymarket Theatre.  The play was influenced by the rape case of Colonel Francis Charteris.  It used rape as an allegory to describe all abuses of freedom, and the corruption of power and justice, in a comedic and farcical manner.  The play revolves around a comedic love plot, in which Hilaret and Constant are the lovers.

A Mr Milward played Mr Constant in the original cast.

Page 116. " Good fame is a species of the Kalon "

Apollo, a Greek hero typifying kalon
Public DomainApollo, a Greek hero typifying kalon - Credit: Kerri
The kalon is an ancient Greek term for what is good, fine, noble, beautiful. It refers to ideal beauty in both the physical and the moral sense.

In Greek culture, what is kalon is typically the object of passionate or romantic love.  Plato identifies the kalon, along with the good and the just, as a key object for human striving and understanding.  Aristotle equates the truly beautiful, with the truly good. 

Page 118. " like freemasons, any common sign of communication "

Freemasonry arose in the late 16th to early 17th century. The fraternity is organised into independent Grand Lodges, which preside over subordinate or constituent Lodges. The various Grand Lodges recognise each other based upon adherence to common principles, known as landmarks

Freemasons use secret signs, grips or handshakes and words to gain admission to meetings and identify legitimate visitors.  Each Grand Lodge is free to create its own rituals, so the identifying signs, grips and passwords differ across jurisdictions.

Page 118. " like the famous Spartan theft "

In ancient Greece, the city-state of Sparta was located on the Peloponnesus, a peninsula southwest of Athens. Spartan society was dedicated to militarism.  The life of every individual, from the moment of birth, belonged absolutely to the state. Military training began from the age of 7, and all male citizens between the ages of 20 and 60 served in the army, and ate and slept in the public barracks. Music was limited to war songs, and no luxury was allowed – even speech has to be kept short and to the point. 

Early in the 6th century Sparta attacked Tegea, the most powerful of the Arcadian cities. The campaign was initially unsuccessful, but Sparta kept up its efforts over many years.  Sparta eventually defeated Tegea, and attributed their subsequent conquest of Arcadia to their theft of the bones of Orestes from Tegea. 

Page 120. " gentlemen of the Aesculapian art "

Aesculapius was the Ancient Greek god of medicine and healing.  His daughters were Hygieia (Hygiene, goddess of health, cleanliness, and sanitation), Iaso (goddess of recuperation from illness), Aceso (goddess of the healing process), Aglaea (goddess of beauty, splendor, glory), and Panacea (the goddess of universal remedy). Aesculapius was the son of Apollo, and shared with Apollo the epithet Paean (the Healer). The rod of Asclepius, a snake-entwined staff, remains a symbol of medicine today.

Page 120. " the complaint of the great Doctor Misaubin "

John Misaubin (right) argues with Dr. Richard Rock in A Harlot’s Progress, 1732
Public DomainJohn Misaubin (right) argues with Dr. Richard Rock in A Harlot’s Progress, 1732 - Credit: William Hogarth
John (Jean) Misaubin (1673-1734) was an 18th century physician. He was born in France, and qualified there as a doctor.  As a Huguenot, he fled France for London, and established himself with a practice in St Martin’s Lane.  In 1719, he became a licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians. 

Despite his robust qualifications, he appeared in a number of satirical prints. He was ridiculed for his fondness for alcohol, his outlandish manners, and his strong French accent.  He was the model for the doctor in William Hogarth’s The Harlot’s Progress. 

He died in London, and his death notices referred to him as "the eminent physician".

Page 120. " Cato knows neither of them, Indifferent in his choice, to sleep or die "

The line comes from Cato, a Tragedy, a play written by Joseph Addison in 1712.  The play is based on the events of the last days of Marcus Porcius Cato Uticensis (95–46 BC), a Stoic, whose deeds, and overt resistance to the tyranny of Julius Ceasar, made him an icon of republicanism, virtue, and liberty. Addison's play deals with themes such as individual liberty versus government tyranny, Republicanism versus Monarchism, logic versus emotion, and Cato's personal struggle to hold to his beliefs in the face of death.

The play was a success throughout England and her colonies.  It has been credited as a literary inspiration for the American Revolution.   

Page 122. " as fast as the Arabian trees their medicinal gums "
Gum arabic
Creative Commons AttributionGum arabic - Credit: Gixie

Gum arabic, also known as acacia gum, is a natural gum made of hardened sap from two species of the acacia tree.  The gum is harvested commercially from wild trees in the Sahel region of Africa, from Senegal and Sudan to Somalia.  Historically, it was cultivated in Arabia and West Asia.  It is used primarily in the food industry as a stabiliser.  It is also used in printing, paint production, glue, cosmetics and various industrial applications. 

Acacia tree
Public DomainAcacia tree - Credit: Kerri

Page 125. " that Saying of Aeschines, that Drunkenness shows the Mind of a Man "

Public DomainAeschines - Credit: ChrisO
Aeschines (389 – 314 BC) was a Greek statesman.  He had a distinguished army career, and moved from the army into politics.  He is known for three important speeches: Against Timarchus (which ended its namesake’s political career), On the False Embassy, a response to an attack by Demosthenes, and Against Ctesiphon.  These three speeches were called by the ancients "the Three Graces."