The Assizes refers to the trials that followed the Monmouth rebellion in 1685. They were presided over by Judge George Jeffreys (1645–1689). Jeffreys went to the West Country to try the captured rebels. The trials began in Winchester on 26 August, and moved on to Salisbury, Dorchester, Taunton and Wells, where they concluded on 23 September. Jeffreys issued harsh sentences to nearly all defendants. Of the more than 1,400 prisoners tried, most were sentenced to death. About 300 were hanged, and their remains displayed around the county to ensure people understood the fate of those who rebelled against the king. A further 800 to 900 prisoners were transported to the West Indies. For his severity, Jeffreys was nicknamed "the hanging judge."
Leadenhall Market is a covered market in the City of London. The market dates back to the 14th century and originated as a meat, game and poultry market. Today, it continues to sell mainly fresh food. Vendors include cheesemongers, butchers and florists.
The Battle of Sedgemoor was fought on 6 July 1685, near Bridwater in Somerset, England. It was the final battle of the Monmouth Rebellion, and followed a series of skirmishes around south west England between the forces of James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, and the army loyal to the reigning King, James II. The royalist forces prevailed and about 500 troops were captured. Monmouth escaped from the battlefield but was later captured and taken to London for trial and execution.
The Venice Carnival is an annual festival that begins 40 days before Easter and ends on Shrove Tuesday. It dates back to 1296, when the Senate of the Republic issued an edict declaring the day before Lent a public holiday.
Historically, costumes would be worn throughout the period of the carnival, generally a cloak with a long-nosed mask. The streets of Venice would fill with masked revellers, and it would be impossible to distinguish between nobility and commoners.
The Carnival declined in the 18th Century, but was revived in the late 1970s and now attracts thousands of tourists from around the world.
The paper catered principally to the interests of England's emerging middle class, the merchants and traders. Despite a modest daily circulation of approximately 3,000 copies, The Spectator was widely read. Joseph Addison estimated that each edition was read by 60,000 Londoners, about a tenth of the city’s population at the time. The main subscribers were coffeehouses, where a great many readers would peruse the paper each day.
His first play, The Ambitious Stepmother, was produced in 1700 at Lincoln’s Inn Fields. It was followed in 1701 by Tamerlane, which celebrates William III. A tragedy, The Fair Penitent, followed in 1703. The name of one of its characters, Lothario, has been incorporated into the English language, to describe ‘a rake.’ In 1704, Rowe tried his hand at comedy, but with little success. He returned to tragedy, and wrote several more plays, before his death at the age of 44.
Rowe was the first modern editor of Shakespeare. He also wrote a short biography of Shakespeare, entitled, Some Account of the Life &c. of Mr. William Shakespear.
A contemporary botanist praised Miller as follows: ‘he has raised the reputation of the Chelsea Garden so much that it excels all the gardens of Europe for its amazing variety of plants of all orders and classes and from all climates...’.
Colley Cibber (1671 - 1757) was an English actor-manager, playwright and Poet Laureate. He wrote 25 plays for his own company at Drury Lane, half of which were adapted from various sources. Robert Lowe and Alexander Pope bemoaned his ‘miserable mutilation’ of Moliere and Shakespeare.
As an actor, he had great popular success in comical fop parts, but was much ridiculed for his attempts at tragedy. He was brash and extroverted, and came under criticism for tasteless theatre productions, shady business methods, and social and political opportunism. He was the chief target, the head Dunce, of Alexander Pope's satirical poem Dunciad.
Cibber’s memoir, Apology for the Life of Colley Cibber (1740) describes his life in a personal, anecdotal and rambling style.
('Anglice' means 'the English form')