Page 28. " she seemed to deserve the name of saint equally with her namesake, or with any other female in the Roman calendar "

The General Roman Calendar dedicates particular days of the year to liturgical celebrations of specific saints.  Only a relatively small proportion of saints are honoured in this way by the Roman Catholic Church, covering approximately half the year. 

The quote refers to St Bridget, or St Birgitta, celebrated on 23 July. 

Other female saints celebrated in the calendar include Agnes, Angela, Agatha, Catherine, Cecelia, Clare, Elizabeth, Felicity, Jane, Maria, Mary Magdalene, Martha, Monica, Perpetua, Rose, Scholastica, and Teresa.

Page 29. " suspected of an inclination to Methodism "
John Wesley, founder of Methodism
Public DomainJohn Wesley, founder of Methodism - Credit: Willian Hamilton

Methodism originated with John Wesley’s evangelistic revival movement within the Anglican Church of England.  Wesley, along with his brother Charles, founded the Holy Club while they were at Oxford.  The Holy Club met weekly between 1729 and 1735, and focused on bible study and systematically living a holy life.  They visited the sick, the poor and prisoners.  George Whitefield was another significant early leader. 

 The early Methodists were reacting against apathy in the Church of England.  The movement spread, and a significant number of Anglican clergy became Methodists in the mid-18th century.  They drew supporters from all levels of society, including the aristocracy.  Methodist preachers carried their message to labourers and criminals. Whitefield favoured open-air preaching to reach a broad audience.  Methodist preachers were notorious for their enthusiastic sermons and were often accused of fanaticism. Many members of the Church of England feared that Methodist doctrines would have ill effects on weak minds.  Following John Wesley's death in 1791, the movement was established as a separate denomination. 

Page 29. " as great a master of the art of love as Ovid was formerly "
Public DomainOvid - Credit: Anton von Werner

Ovid (43 BC – AD 17/18) was a Roman poet.  He is best known as the author of the three major collections of erotic poetry: Heroides (The Heroines), Amores (The Loves) and Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love), as well as the Metamorphoses, a mythological poem.  He ranks alongside Virgil and Horace as one of the three canonic poets of Latin literature.  His poetry greatly influenced European art and literature, and is one of the most important sources of classical mythology.

His three-part Ars Amatoria sets out to teach the arts of seduction, and how to keep a lover. In part 1, for men, Ovid describes the places one can go to find a lover, like the theater, and how to get the girl to notice you. In part 2, he advises men on how to keep their lovers - avoid giving too many gifts, keep up your appearance, hide affairs, give compliments.  In part 3, he provides love advice for women, including the importance of reading poetry, learning to play games, sleeping with people of different ages and flirting.

Page 29. " sloe-black eyes "

Sloe berries
GNU Free Documentation LicenseSloe berries - Credit: Martin Olsson
Blackthorn or sloe is a type of plant, native to Europe, western Asia, and northwest Africa.  Its berries resemble small black plums, hence the expression "sloe-eyed" for a person with dark eyes.

Page 30. " Mr Hogarth himself, to whom she sat many years ago "

Self-Portrait - Hogarth Painting the Comic Muse
Public DomainSelf-Portrait - Hogarth Painting the Comic Muse - Credit: William Hogarth
William Hogarth (1697-1764) was an English painter, printmaker, picture satirist, social critic, cartoonist and engraver.  His work ranged from realistic portraits to comic strip style prints called "modern moral subjects."  In 1757 he was appointed Serjeant Painter to the King.

He lived in an age when artwork was becoming increasingly commercial and available to the common man.  His novel approach was "painting and engraving modern moral subjects ... to treat my subjects as a dramatic writer; my picture was my stage."  As a ‘comic history painter,’ he often poked fun at the old-fashioned, down-trodden subjects of religious art in his paintings and prints, and favoured real-looking, modern characterisations rather than Grecian classical beauties.

Page 31. " Nolo Episcopari, a phrase likewise of immemorial use on another occasion "

San Marciano de Siracusa
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeSan Marciano de Siracusa - Credit: Marbregal
The expression Nolo Episcopari is used to describe a modest refusal of something which is actually desired.  It translates as ‘I do not want to be bishop.’ Tradition has it that those nominated for the post of bishop would politely decline the offer twice with these words, before accepting.

Page 36. " A more adequate translation than that by Mr. Creech "
Manuscript of De rerum natura, 1483
Public DomainManuscript of De rerum natura, 1483 - Credit: Copied by Girolamo di Matteo de Tauris, for Pope Sixtus IV

Thomas Creech (1659–1700) was an English translator of classical works, and headmaster of Sherborne School. He translated De rerum natura, an epic poem by Roman poet and philosopher Lucretius (99BC-55BC), published in 1682 as On the Nature of Things. The translation was very popular, and was often reprinted. Henry Fielding, however, doesn't think much of his efforts, and offers his readers an extract from Creech’s translation of Lucretius with considerable regret. 

Page 36. " those sagacious persons who deal in that which is drawn at Guildhall "
The Guildhall complex, c.1805. The buildings on the right and left have not survived
Public DomainThe Guildhall complex, c.1805. The buildings on the right and left have not survived - Credit: Engraved by E.Shirt after a drawing by Prattent

The Guildhall is a building in the City of London.  It has been used as a town hall for several hundred years, and is still the ceremonial and administrative centre of the City of London Corporation.  The term Guildhall refers both to the whole building and to its main room, which is a medieval-style great hall.  Parts of the current building date from 1411.  Many famous trials have taken place in the great hall, including that of Lady Jane Grey. 

Page 37. " I do not, like a jure divino tyrant, imagine they are my slaves "
Jure Divino frontispiece
Public DomainJure Divino frontispiece - Credit: Daniel Defoe

Jure Divino is Latin for ‘by the command of God.’  Daniel Defoe published Jure Divino: a Satyr, In Twelve Books, in 1706.  The work is an epic poem, which refutes the divine right monarchy and its ‘virtues’ - passive obedience and non-resistance. It argues that this type of monarchy is mere tyranny, and any who give up their freedoms to obey such tyranny are fools. Defoe provides a history of tyrants from antiquity to ‘the present’ (1706) and ends with praise for King William’s rule and for the government of the time in England.

Together with Henry Fielding, Defoe was one of the earliest English novelists.

Page 39. " she exactly resembled the young woman who was pouring out her mistress's tea in the third pictures of the Harlot's Progress "
The Harlot's Progress, Plate 3
Public DomainThe Harlot's Progress, Plate 3 - Credit: William Hogarth 1731

Harlot's Progress is a series of six paintings completed in 1731 by William Hogarth.  It tells the story of a young woman, Mary Hackabout, who arrives in London from the country and becomes a prostitute.  Mary’s character shares her surname with Kate Hackabout, a notorious prostitute at the time.  The series began with the third image. Having painted a prostitute in her boudoir in a garret on Drury Lane, Hogarth decided to create scenes from her earlier and later life as well.  In the first scene, an old woman praises her beauty and suggests a profitable occupation, procuring her for a gentleman.  In the second scene she is a mistress with two lovers. In the third she has become a common prostitute on the point of being arrested. In the fourth she is in Bridewell Prison, beating hemp.  In the fifth, she is dying from venereal disease.  In the sixth, she is dead at age 23.  The paintings proved very popular, and Hogarth followed up with a set of engravings of the images in 1732. 

Page 39. " that notable sect founded by Xantippe of old "
Public DomainXantippe - Credit: Guillaume Rouille(1518?-1589)

Xanthippe was an ancient Athenian.  Her name means ‘blonde horse.’  She was Socrates’ wife, and is believed to have been much younger than him, perhaps by as much as forty years.  She was a devoted wife and mother with Socrates to three sons.  Xenophon's Symposium has Socrates agree that she is "the hardest to get along with of all the women there are," and that he chose her precisely for her argumentative spirit:

Socrates explains that the man who says "None of your soft-mouthed, docile animals for me, the horse for me to own must show some spirit" understands that if he can manage such an animal, it will be easy enough to deal with every other horse besides. Socrates endorses this view: "I wish to deal with human beings, to associate with man in general; hence my choice of wife. I know full well, if I can tolerate her spirit, I can with ease attach myself to every human being else."

Page 41. " sacrifice to the goddess Nemesis "

Nemesis, marble, found in Egypt, 2nd century AD
Public DomainNemesis, marble, found in Egypt, 2nd century AD - Credit: photographed by Marie-Lan Nguyen
In Greek mythology, Nemesis, also called Rhamnousia, was the spirit of divine retribution against those who succumb to hubris (arrogance before the gods). The name Nemesis derives from the Greek némein, meaning "to give what is due," i.e. the distributor of fortune according to what was deserved.  In time nemesis came to suggest the resentment caused by any disturbance of this right proportion, the sense of justice which could not allow it to pass unpunished. Nemesis was sometimes called "Adrasteia", meaning "one from whom there is no escape."

Page 41. " Horace, in one of his epistles "
Public DomainHorace - Credit: Anton von Werner

Quintus Horatius Flaccus (65 BC-8 BC), known as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the reign of Augustus.  He also wrote hexameter verses and iambic poetry.  His career coincided with Rome's change from Republic to Empire. His poetry has been described as "the common currency of civilization."  He published Epistles 1 around 21 BC, and Epistles 2 around 11 BC.  In the opening poem of the first book of Epistles he professes a deep interest in moral philosophy.  In the final poem he revealed himself to 44 years old and "of small stature, fond of the sun, prematurely grey, quick-tempered but easily placated."  The second book of Epistles took the form of a verse letter to the emperor Augustus, at the latter’s request.  It celebrated certain military victories, but was mainly devoted to literary theory and criticism.

Page 41. " the chandler's shop, the known seat of all news "

GNU Free Documentation LicenseCandle - Credit: Bangin
A chandlery was originally the office in a medieval household responsible for wax and candles, and the room in which the candles were kept. It was headed by a chandler.  Shops selling wax and candles were similarly known as chandler's shops. 

Soap was a natural byproduct of candle-making and by the 18th century most commercial chandlers dealt in candles and soap, and were increasingly becoming dealers in a broader range of household goods.  They therefore become a good place for household servants to share neighbourhood gossip while running errands.

Page 41. " As fair Grimalkin, who, though the youngest of the feline family "

Public DomainGrimalkin - Credit: Kerri
A grimalkin is an old or evil-looking female cat.  The term stems from grey (the color) and "malkin", an archaic term for a cat.  Scottish legend makes reference to the grimalkin as a faery cat which dwells in the highlands.  The name may have originated with Beware the Cat (published 1570) by William Baldwin, a novel about talking cats.  Part of it relates the story of the Grimalkin's death. During 16th to 18th centuries, the name grimalkin - and cats in general - became associated with the devil and witchcraft.