Marie-Catherine Le Jumel de Barneville, Baroness d'Aulnoy (c.1650-1705) was a French writer. She was frequently referred to as Comtesse, although the title was inaccurate. The translation of her name into English was subject to considerable variation, including d’Anois, and Dunois.
From 1690 to 1703 she published 12 books, 10 of which were translated into English by 1721. They include three pseudo travel memoirs, translated as The Lady’s travels into Spain, The Memoirs of the Court of Spain, and The Memoirs of the Court of England, three "historical" romances, various novels, and three collections of fairy tales. The most popular were her fairy tales and adventure stories as told in Les Contes des Fees (Tales of fairies) and Contes Nouveaux, ou Les Fées à la Mode. The stories were told in a conversational style, as they might be told in salons, and were not for the ears of children.
Ycleped is an archaic term for ‘named’ or ‘called.’
A juniper berry is not really a berry, but a seed cone, with fleshy and merged scales, which gives it a berry-like appearance. The cones are used as a spice, and give gin its distinguishing flavour.
Juniper has been a popular flavourant for distilled spirits since the 11th century, by virtue of its perfume, flavour, and purported medicinal properties.
A Dutch physician is credited with inventing gin. The name gin derives from the French or Dutch word for juniper (genièvre or jenever). By the mid-17th century, numerous small Dutch and Flemish distillers had popularized the re-distillation of malt spirit or wine with juniper, anise, caraway, coriander and other spices, which were sold in pharmacies to treat various medical problems. Gin became popular in England after the Government allowed unlicensed gin production and at the same time imposed a heavy duty on all imported spirits. Thousands of gin-shops sprang up across the country.
‘For Mr. Banier hath renounced the common Method of treating Fables as mere Allegories, and hath proved, that they have their FOUNDATION in REAL HISTORY, and contain many important Facts. He hath most judiciously stripped them of their poetical Embelishments and Disguises, and reduced them to the plain Historical Truths which the first Poets found them.’
The book was translated from French into English and German. It also formed the basis for the sections on Greek mythology in Diderot’s Encycolpedie.
Mount Parnassus is a mountain of limestone in central Greece. In Greek mythology, the mountain is sacred to Apollo and the Corycian nymphs, and is home to the muses. The mountain is named after Parnassos, the son of Kleodora, a nymph, and Kleopompus, a man. As the home of the Muses, Parnassus was associated with poetry, music, and learning.
James (Jemmy) Moore Smythe (1702- 1734) was an Engligh playwright. He had a reputation for foppishness and big spending. Despite inheriting substantial estates, he ran up large debts, and died in poverty.
In 1727, he wrote his only play, The Rival Modes. It was performed by the Drury Lane company but was not well received, and ran for only six nights.
In the second act, Smythe quoted eight lines of Alexander Pope's poetry, without giving credit to Pope. It appears that Pope had given and then revoked permission for the use of the lines, but Smythe used them anyway.
Pope used his subsequent works to exact revenge. In his The Dunciad of 1727, he describes Moore as a ‘phantom poet,’ a vacuous nothing who works book sellers into a frenzy with his flashiness, but turns out to have nothing but stolen verses. Pope renewed the attack in 1730, writing in The Grub-Street Journal:
A Gold watch found on a Cinder Whore,
Or a good verse on J--my M-re,
Proves but what either shou'd conceal,
Not that they're rich, but that they steal.
Later in life, he moved away from overtly political work, to write and publish translations of Seneca the Younger’s Morals and Cicero’s Offices, and his Fables of Aesop and other eminent mythologists (1692). In 1702 he completed his English translation of "The works of Flavius Josephus." He also wrote a 'Key' to Hudibras, Samuel Butler’s 17th century satire on the English Civil War.
The poem from which the line comes exhorts Roman citizens to develop martial prowess so that the enemies of Rome will be too terrified to resist them.
The line was famously reproduced in Wilfred Owen's poem, Dulce et Decorum Est, which describes a gas attack during World War I. Owen uses the line in the final lines of his poem, describing it as "the old lie."