"are acquitted or condemned according to whether they conduced to progress or reaction"

 Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814) was a German idealist philosopher whose work is seen as a link between that of Kant and Hegel. His use of Kant's obscure writing style makes his work very difficult to penetrate. He was condemned in German as his philosophy seemed atheistic, although he denied this charge.









 Friedrich Schelling (1775-1854) was also a German idealist philosopher who was influenced by Fichte. His writing on mythology and revelation had an important impact on Continental European thinking. However, breaks and changes in his philosophy making it more difficult to express his ideas as a single overarching system of thought, have meant that his influence has waned.








François-René de Chateaubriand (1768-1848) was a French writer, considered the founder of French literary Romanticism. He was a Royalist, and was exiled to England after the success of the French Revolution, where he became interested in English literature, particularly Milton. He returned to France during Napoleon's time and won the latter's favour, although they soon parted ways; Chateaubriand was then saved from penury by the Russian Tsarina, who considered him a defender of Christianity. His writing had an important influence on Victor Hugo, Lord Byron, and Stendhal.