Page 1296. " If men descended from the apes "

 This is a reference to Charles Darwin's theory of evolution, which he first put forward in in 1859 book On the Origin of Species.

Tolstoy didn't accept the theory of evolution. Shortly before his death he wrote to two of his children that "the views you have acquired about Darwinism, evolution, and the struggle for existence won’t explain to you the meaning of your life and won’t give you guidance in your actions, and a life without an explanation of its meaning and importance, and without the unfailing guidance that stems from it is a pitiful existence."

As this shows, his refusal to accept the theory stemmed less from faults he perceived in the theory itself than from its implications for his religious beliefs. He felt that Darwinism threatened to undermine morality.

Page 1299. " the crafty conduct of Bismarck "

 Otto von Bismarck (1815 – 30 July 1898) was Prime Minister of Prussia from 1862–1890, during which time he oversaw the unification of Germany, becoming its first chancellor. His achievements in diplomacy earned him the name the 'Iron Chancellor'; he helped keep Europe relatively peaceful in the latter half of the nineteenth century, but also proved a strong leader in times of war, such as during the Franco-Prussian conflict of 1870-71.