A new look at a classic ghost story
In 1898, Henry James published an extraordinary short novel that has terrified and captivated readers ever since. We're delighted, in 2012, to announce a new enhanced edition of The Turn of the Screw, integrating a fascinating profile by Emily Gray. All the bookmarks are linked to the relevant passages of the book. The other elements of the profile are accessible from the Extras page.
You can find The Turn of the Screw (enhanced edition) at www.KoboBooks.com. It is best read on Kobo's apps for smartphones or tablets, but you can also download the ePub on a desktop and read it with Adobe Digital Editions.
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This is the second enhanced classic from Book Drum. Heart of Darkness is already on the virtual shelves, and Dracula is coming soon! If you would like to help us create an enhanced classic, pick an out-of-copyright book and build a profile. If it's good, we'll publish the ebook.
The Turn of the Screw
When a young governess is placed in sole charge of two apparently angelic children, she falls under their youthful spell. As strange apparitions begin to reveal themselves, however, her rapture gives way to a growing fear that her charges are prey to evil influences against which she must do battle. But is she the virtuous heroine she believes herself to be or a deranged paranoid unfit to care for vulnerable children?
A review by Emily Gray:
In his Advance of the English Novel (1916), William Lyon Phelps recalls meeting Henry James as a young man and eulogizing about The Turn of the Screw; the author responded, "I meant to scare the whole world with that story". Though written over 100 years ago, this abidingly sinister novella has lost none of its power to chill the blood. An atmosphere of evil clings to its every page. His diabolical subversion of childhood innocence has cast so long a shadow over 20th century horror that it has become a keystone of the genre. It is a melodrama, yet James eschews schlocky effects in favour of a more subtle sense of the uncanny, derived from an ambiguity as to what actually occurs. Nothing is ever stated explicitly. We never learn, for example, exactly what Quint and Jessel have done or how they died, nor do we know whether Miles and Flora truly see the ghosts or whether this is a conviction arising from the governess's mental and emotional derangement. The real reason for Miles's expulsion from school is never made clear. Even at the climactic ending, the reader is left unsure as to what has actually happened.
It is these equivocations that lend The Turn of the Screw its enduring power to disturb and enthral. Its ghosts are at once the spirits of the dead and the dark shades that haunt the human mind. This paradox arises from the literary crossroads at which James sites his fiction. He is both a Victorian writer who, like his peers, believed plot to be “the prime and precious thing” (Preface to the New York edition of The Ambassadors, 1909) and a modernist who pioneered literary realism and was preoccupied by narrative subjectivity. He is the product of a culture fascinated by the supernatural, séances and spirit communication, and also the brother of America’s leading psychologist and a dedicated student of the workings of the unconscious mind. Though in the preface to the New York edition he cites a ghost story told to him by Edward Benson as a primary source, he also draws upon contemporary writings on hysteria — the parallels with Freud’s case-study of ‘Lucy R.’ published in Studies on Hysteria (1895) are especially striking. With great skill and piercing intelligence, James pulls together these opposing trends of thought to create a story that affords two mutually exclusive readings: that which conceives of the governess as a hysterical fantasist is intruded upon by evidence which attests to the ghosts’ reality, whilst the literal interpretation is haunted by its psychoanalytic counterpart.
The Turn of the Screw also displays a thoroughly modern preoccupation with the nature of writing itself. James employs a highly complex, circumlocutory style, repeatedly using the same words in different senses to probe the ambiguities of language. The effect is to recreate in microcosm the contradictions and multiple possibilities that pervade the book at plot level. Its pages are liberally peppered with references to story books, gothic literature, dramatic performances and works of art. In this line of imagery, the governess is figured both as the creator and the reader/viewer of artistic productions, a murky position which undermines her implicit responsibility to act as an objective reporter of facts. In this interpretation, the ghosts are neither real nor the projections of a disordered psyche but metaphors for the effects of writing. As a means of conjuring up spectral semblances, literature is itself a haunted space of which the reader is the victim. The deep-rooted sense of paranoia that arises from reading The Turn of the Screw lies in the conviction that we are ourselves being manipulated without knowing exactly how, by whom or to what end.