The Milice française (French Militia) was a paramilitary police force set up in January 1943 by Prime Minister Laval to prevent acts of sabotage and terrorism against the Vichy government. By 1944 it had more than 35,000 members.
Effectively the French wing of the Gestapo, the Milice rounded up Jews and tortured and executed members of the resistance.
Miliciens were often more feared than the Gestapo, because they knew the language and land intimately, and so were extremely effective against the Resistance. Consequently, resistance fighters targeted miliciens for assassination.
After the war, miliciens were hunted down. Many were tried and executed. The Statement by Brian Moore tells the story of a Nazi collaborator still on the run. It was made into a movie starring Michael Caine.