Page 1. " Last night I dreamt I went to Manderley again "
Milton Hall, near Peterborough
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeMilton Hall, near Peterborough - Credit: Julian Dowse

 

Menabilly Coastline
Creative Commons AttributionMenabilly Coastline - Credit: Kai Hendry

Daphne du Maurier has said that the fictional Manderley, ancestral home of Maxim de Winter, was based on two actual houses: Menabilly in Cornwall, and Milton Hall in Cambridgeshire. According to du Maurier, Manderley is essentially 'Milton in the setting of Menabilly'.

Menabilly is a Georgian manor house situated on the Gribben peninsula near Fowey on the south coast of Cornwall. It is the family seat of the Rashleighs, and was leased to Daphne du Maurier from 1943 to 1969.

Milton Hall, which Daphne du Maurier visited as a child, was built in 1594 and is the ancestral seat of the Fitzwilliam family. It is situated about three miles from Peterborough in what is now Cambridgeshire.

Page 1. " I saw that the lodge was uninhabited "
Menabilly Gatehouse
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeMenabilly Gatehouse - Credit: Chris J. Dixon

A lodge is a small house used by landowners on a temporary basis for activities such as hunting and shooting. It was also the name given to any small house in the grounds of a larger house that might be lived in by employees such as gamekeepers, gardeners and gatekeepers. 

Here, the term is used to describe the house at the entrance to Manderley, which would have been occupied by the gatekeeper. Gatehouses/lodges are often architecturally interesting and attractive (sometimes designed in the mock-rustic style known as cottage orné) and have become sought-after residences in their own right.

 

Cottage orné lodge of Gaunts House, Dorset, England
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeCottage orné-style lodge of Gaunts House, Dorset, England - Credit: Chris Downer
Page 1. " the little lattice windows gaped forlorn "
Lacock Abbey oriel window
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeLacock Abbey oriel window - Credit: Roger Gittins

A lattice window is subdivided into small panes by strips of lead. The strips may run diagonally (as left), or vertically and horizontally, as in the windows of Milton Hall (below), the model for Manderley.

 

Milton Hall, Cambridgeshire

 

 

Page 1. " The beeches with white, naked limbs leant close to one another "
Beech trees (Fagus sylvatica)
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeBeech trees (Fagus sylvatica) - Credit: Jim Champion

Beech (Fagus) is a genus of deciduous trees which includes ten species. The two most commonly found species in the British Isles are the common beech (Fagus sylvatica) and the copper beech (Fagus sylvatica 'Atropunicea') which is renowned for its purplish-coloured leaves.

Page 2. " hydrangeas whose blue heads had been famous "
Hydrangeas at Hoveton Hall, Norfolk
Creative Commons AttributionHydrangeas at Hoveton Hall, Norfolk - Credit: Northmetpit

 Hydrangea is a genus of flowering shrubs containing between 70 and 75 species. It is native to southern and eastern Asia and the Americas, but was introduced into Europe in the 18th century. Hydrangeas may be white, pink, blue, mauve, or even red in colour, depending on the species and the type of soil they are grown in. In those Hydrangea species capable of producing blue flowers (such as Hydrangea macrophylla), the blue colour has to be preserved through the maintenance of an acid soil.

 

Hydrangea macrophylla
Creative Commons AttributionHydrangea macrophylla - Credit: Jim Capaldi
Page 2. " the mullioned windows reflecting the green lawns and the terrace "
'Old Mullions', Honington, Warwickshire
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike'Old Mullions', Honington, Warwickshire - Credit: John Brightley

A mullion is a vertical section which divides up an area of window, a door or a screen. Traditionally, in large country houses the mullions would be made of stone. The stone mullions of Milton Hall (the model for Manderley) may be seen by clicking on the link.

 

Mullioned windows at St Bartholomew the Great, London
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeMullioned windows at St Bartholomew the Great, London - Credit: Mike Quinn

 

 

Page 2. " The rhododendrons stood fifty foot high "

 The rhododendrons at Manderley are described later in the text as being 'blood-red'.

 

Red rhododendrons
Creative Commons AttributionRed rhododendrons - Credit: SyGuildmistress

Rhododendron is a genus of flowering shrubs and trees which contains over a 1,000 species. The plant is prolific in the Himalayas and commonplace in parts of Korea, Japan and Taiwan. It is the national flower of Nepal.

Rhododendrons were first introduced to the British Isles in the late 18th century and became highly popular in Victorian gardens. However, in certain parts of Britain, the spreading into the wild of the species Rhododendron ponticum  is now seen as a significant threat to native flora and fauna. A little known fact about Rhododendron ponticum is that eating honey made from its nectar or pollen has, on rare occasions, caused a range of unpleasant symptoms, including hallucinations, vertigo and lack of co-ordination, collectively known as  mad honey disease!

Page 3. " the discarded copy of The Times "

 

'The Times', May 27, 1873
Creative Commons Attribution'The Times', May 27, 1873 - Credit: xlibber

The British national daily newspaper The Times, sometimes known as The Times of London, was founded in 1785 under the title The Daily Universal Register. It was renamed The Times in 1788 and, with the nickname The Thunderer, came to be seen as the newspaper of the upper classes and the establishment. The Times remains in circulation today, having changed its format from broadsheet to tabloid in 2004.

Page 4. " Tea under the chestnut tree "
Horse-chestnut in bloom
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeHorse-chestnut in bloom - Credit: Trish Steel

The 'chestnut tree' is probably a horse-chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), rather than a true chestnut tree belonging to the genus Castanea. The horse-chestnut is a large deciduous tree which was introduced to Britain in the 17th century and became popular for its attractive blossom in springtime. In autumn its nuts, known as conkers, have traditionally been collected by children to play a game of the same name.

There is something quintessentially English about the idea of 'tea under the chestnut tree', possibly because of its association with poetry such as Rupert Brooke's 'Stands the church clock at ten to three/And is there honey still for tea?'* or Longfellow's 'Under a spreading chestnut tree/The village smithy stands'**. It is, therefore, very much in keeping with all the other nostalgia-evoking concepts which come to the narrator's mind during her exile from England.

* from the poem 'The Old Vicarage, Grantchester'

** from the poem 'The Village Blacksmith'

Bearing in mind the parallels that have been drawn between Rebecca and Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre, it is also interesting to note that Rochester proposes to Jane by 'the giant horse-chestnut', which is later struck by lightning.

Page 4. " I would think of the blown lilac "
Common lilac
Creative Commons AttributionCommon lilac - Credit: CouleurLavande.com

 Lilac (Syringa) is a genus of flowering plants containing between 20 and 25 species. Lilacs may be coloured white, blue, purple, pink, or lavender, but the colour commonly referred to as lilac is that of common lilac (Syringa vulgaris). In the Victorian system known as floriography or 'the language of flowers', lilac symbolizes 'the first emotions of love'. This association may have been the basis of the Ivor Novello song 'We'll Gather Lilacs' from the musical romance 'Perchance to Dream' (1945).

Lilacs are mentioned later on in the text when Maxim de Winter is telling the narrator how much he loves Manderley, and asks her whether she likes syringa.

Listen here to 'We'll Gather Lilacs' on Spotify.

Page 4. " and the Happy Valley "

For readers of this period, the term 'Happy Valley' would have brought to mind the 'Happy Valley set', a group of mostly upper-class British expatriates who settled in the Wanjohi valley area of Kenya from 1924 onwards. The 'set' became renowned for decadence and hedonism, their notoriety reaching a peak in 1941 with the murder of Lord Erroll, an event documented in the book White Mischief and the film of the same name. A negative portrayal of the Happy Valley lifestyle is also given by Juanita Carberry in her memoir Child of Happy Valley.

 

Google Map
Page 6. " Sometimes old copies of the Field come my way "

 

Illustration from 'Foxes, Foxhounds and Fox-hunting' by Richard Clapham
Public DomainIllustration from 'Foxes, Foxhounds and Fox-hunting' by Richard Clapham - Credit: Lionel Edwards

 

 

 

The Field is a British field sports magazine which was published for the first time in 1853. Field sports include all sporting activities which take place in the open air, but in common usage the term generally refers to country pursuits such as hunting, shooting and fishing. The Field continues to be published on a monthly basis.

 

Page 6. " I read of chalk streams "
River Pang
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeRiver Pang - Credit: Shaun Ferguson

The term chalk stream refers to any river, small or large, which flows over a bed of chalk (soft white limestone). Such rivers have very specific characteristics, including exceptional water clarity and consistent temperatures. As a result, they support a wide variety of fish, including brown trout and Atlantic salmon, and are prized by the fly-fishing community.

Chalk stream springs have traditionally been the site of watercress production as they have clean, mineral-rich water at a constant temperature.

Examples of English chalk streams are the River Kennet which rises in Wiltshire, and the River Pang which rises in Berkshire. They are  both tributaries of the Thames.

Page 6. " the mayfly "
Mayfly
Creative Commons AttributionMayfly - Credit: Marilyn Peddle

 Mayflies, sometimes known as shad flies, are aquatic insects belonging to the order Ephemoptera. They are closely related to dragonflies and damselflies. The adult flies live for a very short period of time, which varies from a few minutes to a few days.

Mayfly
Creative Commons AttributionMayfly - Credit: Mick. E. Talbot

 

Page 6. " of sorrel growing in green meadows "
Common sorrel in flower
GNU Free Documentation LicenseCommon sorrel - Credit: H.Zell

 Garden sorrel, or common sorrel (Rumex acetosa), is a bitter-tasting plant which is native to Britain.

In Tudor times, it was very highly thought of as a herb and salad ingredient, but it lost its popularity with the introduction of French sorrel (Rumex scutatus).

 

Leaves of common sorrel
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeLeaves of common sorrel - Credit: Christian Hummert

 

Page 7. " Middlesex batting on a dry wicket at the Oval "
English cricketers in 1928
Public DomainEnglish cricketers in 1928 - Credit: unknown

 Middlesex Country Cricket Club, founded in 1864, is one of the cricket teams which take part in first-class county cricket in England and Wales. All the teams (with the exception of Marylebone Cricket Club) which participate in county cricket are named after the historic counties (those counties that no longer exist as administrative units). Nowadays, Middlesex generally play their games at Lord's Cricket Ground in St John's Wood.

The Oval, situated at Kennington in the London borough of Lambeth, has been the home ground of Surrey County Cricket Club since 1845.

Page 7. " Some people have a vice of reading Bradshaws "

George Bradshaw (1801-1853) was an English map-maker, printer and publisher who pioneered the publication of railway timetables. His first British timetables were produced in 1839, and from 1841 until 1961 were published monthly as Bradshaw's Monthly Railway Guide.

Bradshaw's Continental Railway Guide was published for the first time in 1847.  It ceased publication in 1939.

 

Framed example of a Bradshaw timetable, dated 1890
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeFramed example of a Bradshaw timetable, dated 1890 - Credit: Colin Smith
Page 8. " and pick foxgloves and pale campions "
Common foxglove
Creative Commons AttributionCommon foxglove - Credit: thy

There are about 20 species of foxglove, all of which belong to the genus Digitalis. The best known species is Digitalis purpurea, the common foxglove. Extracts from foxgloves are used to manufacture digitalis, a drug used to treat cardiac conditions.

Campion is the common name given to various flowering plants of the Lychnis and Silene genera. Campions found in Britain include the red campion (Silene dioica), the white campion (Silene latifolia) and the bladder campion (Silene vulgaris). Of these, the latter two could be described as "pale".

 

Bladder campions
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeBladder campions - Credit: Michael Gasperl
White campion
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeWhite campion - Credit: Sannse
Page 8. " Those dripping crumpets "
A buttered crumpet
GNU Free Documentation LicenseA buttered crumpet - Credit: Loop Zilla (cropped by Albert Cahalan)

 Crumpets are small, round cakes made from a batter of flour, milk and yeast. Traditionally, they are  cooked on a griddle/bakestone in specially designed crumpet rings. They have a chewy, spongy texture, full of holes, and are eaten hot with butter and jam.

Recipe for crumpets

Page 8. " Angel cake, that melted in the mouth "

Classic Angel Food Cake Slice

 

British angel cake is generally described as a triple-layered (occasionally, double-layered) sponge cake where one layer is coloured yellow, one coloured pink, and one left plain. The layers are generally sandwiched together with buttercream and may be topped with a thin layer of icing. Angel cake is, therefore, generally viewed as being different from the American angel food cake. However, The Complete Illustrated Cookery published by Associated Newspapers Ltd. in 1934 gives a recipe for 'angel cake' which has no colouring, and the following ingredients: flour, castor sugar, cream of tartar, vanilla essence, egg whites. These are identical to the ingredients of the American cake, suggesting that it may well have been angel food cake which was served at Manderley.

The famous Fullers confectionary company, which was in operation in the first half of the 20th century, manufactured angel cake and earned itself a mention in John Betjeman's poem 'Myfanwy':

Oh! Fullers angel-cake, Robertson’s marmalade,
Liberty lampshade, come shine on us all,
My! what a spread for the friends of Myfanwy,
Some in the alcove and some in the hall.

Recipe for layered angel cake

Recipe for angel food cake

 

Page 9. " Even my faithful Jasper has gone to the happy hunting grounds "
Depiction of a native American artist painting on buckskin (1902)
Public DomainDepiction of a native American artist painting on buckskin (1902) - Credit: E. Irving Couse

The happy hunting grounds is widely considered to be the term used by some native American tribes to describe their version of 'heaven'; in the words of one commentator, 'the term "happy hunting grounds" refers to a benevolent and Edenic afterlife in which game is plentiful and there for the taking'.

The phrase was first used by James Fenimore Cooper in his 1826 novel The Last of the Mohicans, where the character Chingachgook, following the death of his son Uncas, says:

'Why do my brothers mourn! ... why do my daughters weep! that a young man has gone to the happy hunting grounds; that a chief has filled his time with honour.'

However, even though the phrase has been widely used in cinema and television Westerns, and has passed into popular usage, there is no clear evidence that it is an accurate translation or interpretation of an idea expressed originally in a native American language.

Page 9. " the bougainvillea is white with dust "

Bougainvillea
Creative Commons AttributionBougainvillea - Credit: heydrienne
 Bougainvillea is a genus of flowering plants which is native to South America. The genus is noted for the bright colour of its flowers which may be red, pink, magenta, purple, orange, white or yellow. It was introduced into Europe in the early 19th century and has become a favourite in locations with a mild climate. Locarno in Switzerland is particularly noted for its bougainvilleas.

Page 10. " the Hotel Côte d'Azur at Monte Carlo "
Poster for Monte Carlo (1897)
Public DomainPoster for Monte Carlo (1897) - Credit: Alfons Mucha

The Côte d'Azur is the name given to the Mediterranean coastline of southeast France, extending roughly from the Franco-Italian border westwards to Toulon. It includes the Principality of Monaco which is divided into four traditional quartiers (or districts), one of which is Monte Carlo. British people often refer to the Côte d'Azur as the French Riviera.

Since the 18th century, the French Riviera has been a popular holiday destination for the British upper classes and royalty. During the first half of the 20th century, it also attracted many writers and artists, including W. Somerset Maugham and Pablo Picasso. Later on, it became the haunt of various celebrities in the world of film and popular music, including Brigitte Bardot and Elton John. Amongst the resorts of the Côte d'Azur, Monte Carlo, with its world-famous casino, has a particular reputation for attracting the wealthy and famous.

There is no record of a specific hotel named the Côte d'Azur in Monte Carlo, but Daphne du Maurier may have had a luxury hotel such as the Hotel de Paris Monte Carlo (founded 1863) in mind when she created the Côte d'Azur.

 

Hôtel de Paris Monte Carlo
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeHôtel de Paris Monte Carlo - Credit: Testus

 

 

Page 15. " Here they are sunbathing at Palm Beach "
Royal Poinciana Hotel, Palm Beach, Florida (1900)
Public DomainRoyal Poinciana Hotel, Palm Beach, Florida (1900) - Credit: Detroit Publishing Co.

 Palm Beach (or Palm Beach Island) is a town in Florida which was developed by the millionaire industrialist Henry Morrison Flagler in the late 19th and early 20th century.

Hotels were opened from 1894 onwards, and the area became a sought-after holiday destination for America's social and cultural élite, including the Rockefellers, the Vanderbilts, U.S. presidents and European nobility.

 

Google Map
Page 15. " when he gave that party at Claridges "
Claridge's Lobby
Creative Commons AttributionClaridge's Lobby - Credit: Josh Friedman

 Claridge's is an up-market, five-star hotel situated in London's Mayfair. It was established in 1812 as Mivart's Hotel and, following development, became one of the premier London hotels. It was re-built in its present form in 1894, since when it has been the hotel of choice for many aristocrats and celebrities.

Restaurant entrance at Claridge's
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeRestaurant entrance at Claridge's - Credit: Ewan Munro

When Peter II of Yugoslavia and his wife were in exile at Claridge's during World War II, their suite was designated Yugoslav territory for one day in 1945 so that their son, Crown Prince Alexander, could claim to have been born on Yugoslav soil.

 

Google Map
Page 15. " a certain Gentleman Unknown "
Portrait of a Gentleman
Public DomainPortrait of a Gentleman - Credit: El Greco

'Portrait of a Gentleman Unknown' is a common description of a painting in which the sitter has not been identified.

The examples shown here, by Robert Peake the Elder and El Greco, might easily fit the bill for the portrait sitter that the narrator of Rebecca has in mind: 'in black, with lace at his throat' and 'eyes that followed one'.

 

Portrait of an Unknown Gentleman
Public DomainPortrait of an Unknown Gentleman - Credit: Robert Peake the Elder

 

Page 15. " I wish I could remember the Old Master who had painted that portrait "
'The Resurrection of Christ'
Public Domain'The Resurrection of Christ' - Credit: Raphael

 'Old Master' is a term given to any renowned European artist who painted from the 15th century to the 19th century.

Artists described in this way include Sandro Botticelli, Raphael, Giovanni Bellini, Pieter Bruegel the Elder, and numerous others.

 

'Misanthrope'
Public Domain'Misanthrope' - Credit: Pieter Brueghel the Elder

 

 

 

 

Page 16. " Isn't there a minstrels' gallery at Manderley "
Musicians' Gallery at St. Grwst Church, Llanrwst, Wales
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeMusicians' Gallery at St. Grwst Church, Llanrwst, Wales - Credit: Eirian Evans

A minstrels' gallery is a type of balcony built over a great hall or banqueting room. Its purpose was to allow musicians to entertain guests whilst remaining out of sight.

In Britain, minstrels' galleries can be seen at the Great Hall of Durham Castle (which is part of the University of Durham) and at Greystoke Castle in Cumbria.

Similar arrangements may be found in some churches, although it is likely that the term used within the church setting would be musicians' gallery, rather than minstrels' gallery. In the picture (left) of the musicians' gallery at the church of St. Grwst at Llanrwst, the front part of the gallery is the rood screen which once belonged to Maenan Abbey.

 

Page 16. " has been in his family's possession since the Conquest "
Section of Bayeux Tapestry depicting the Battle of Hastings
Public DomainSection of Bayeux Tapestry depicting the Battle of Hastings - Credit: LadyofHats

The 'Conquest' referred to is the Norman conquest of England, which took place in 1066 when Duke William II of Normandy (known as 'William the Conqueror') defeated King Harold II of England at the Battle of Hastings.

The conquest inevitably had far-reaching consequences for the native Anglo-Saxons. William's followers received lands and titles, whilst English landowners were dispossessed, leading eventually to the demise of the Anglo-Saxon nobility. Not least of the changes brought about by the Norman conquest was that Anglo-Norman (a dialect of Old French) replaced Old English as the language of the ruling classes.

Page 16. " Not since Ethelred, he said, the one who was called Unready "
Æthelred the Unready
Public DomainÆthelred the Unready - Credit: unknown

Æthelred II (c.968-1016), who has become known as Æthelred the Unready, was King of England between 976 and 1016, except for a brief period when he was overthrown by King Sweyn of Denmark.

The nickname Unready derives from the Old English unræd, which means bad counsel, in contract to Æthelred, which means noble counsel.

 

Page 17. " Are you going to play 'Chemy', or have you brought your golf-clubs? "
The casino at Monte Carlo
Creative Commons AttributionThe casino at Monte Carlo - Credit: Alison Christine

Chemy is an abbreviation of chemin de fer, a French card game played in European and Latin American casinos. It is sometimes also known as shimmy or chernay.

The game is of one of three versions of baccarat, which was introduced in France in the 15th century; in French, therefore, the use of the term chemin de fer for the card game predates its use to mean railway.

The other two versions of baccarat are known as punto banco and baccarat banque.

Page 17. " the west country must be delightful in the spring "

Although Daphne du Maurier herself confirmed that Manderley is set in Cornwall, she does not refer to the county by name in Rebecca, preferring to use the less specific term the west country.

The west country is a colloquial collective term for the historic counties of Cornwall, Devon, Somerset and Dorset. It may also be used on occasions to include Gloucestershire and Wiltshire. The area covered by the west country corresponds roughly to the present-day administrative region known as South West England.

 

Google Map
Page 18. " The Duke of Middlesex is here in his yacht "

'View of the French Riviera' (between 1912 and 1918)
Public Domain'View of the French Riviera' (between 1912 and 1918) - Credit: Fausto Zonaro
As might be expected, Daphne du Maurier has been careful to choose a title which has never existed in the British peerage.

Having said that, the French Riviera was a popular destination for the British upper classes from the beginning of the 19th century until the early decades of the 20th, so the presence of a British Duke in Monte Carlo would not have seemed inappropriate in the period in which Rebecca is set.

The title the Earl of Middlesex has been created on two separate occasions in English history, but became extinct in 1720 when Lionel Cranfield Sackville, 2nd Earl of Middlesex became Duke of Dorset.

Page 18. " tomorrow I am probably driving to Sospel "

Sospel is a small town, not far from Monte Carlo, in the Alpes-Maritime deparment of southeastern France. It dates back to the 5th century, and became a walled town during the 14th century. Only a tiny remnant of the walls has survived to the present day.

 

Sospel
Creative Commons AttributionSospel - Credit: Stephen Colebourne

Google Map

 

 

 

Page 20. " a mind brought up on Snap and Happy Families "

Snap is a very simple card game (although curiously difficult to explain!) and has traditionally been one of the first card games learnt by British children.

Happy Families is a traditional British card game played with specially designed playing cards depicting family members who follow a particular profession (such as Mrs Bun the Baker's wife; Mr Field the Farmer), the objective being to collect complete family sets.

 

IMG_6743

Page 20. " I thought of that corner in Monaco which I had passed a day or two ago "
Monaco-Ville
GNU Free Documentation LicenseMonaco-Ville - Credit: Arnaud 25

The Principality of Monaco is the second smallest country in the world (the smallest being the Vatican City). Its traditional quartiers (districts) are called Monaco-Ville (Le Rocher); Monte Carlo; La Condamine and Fontvieille.

Monaco-Ville, which is located on a rocky headland overlooking the Mediterranean, retains many of the features of a medieval village and may well have been the site of  'that corner in Monaco' where 'a crooked house leant to a cobbled square'.

 

Small street in Monaco-Ville
Public DomainSmall street in Monaco-Ville - Credit: Rundvald

Page 23. " the vase of stiff anemones "
Japanese anemone (Anemone hupehensis)
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeJapanese anemone (Anemone hupehensis) - Credit: rebel rebel
'Anemones'
Public Domain'Anemones' - Credit: François Barraud (1899-1934)

 Anemone is a genus of flowering plants which contains about 120 diverse species. They are sometimes known as windflowers and come in a wide variety of colours.

The genus tends to be divided into three categories: low-growing species which bloom in springtime; tuberous Mediterranean types which bloom in spring and summer; and taller species which bloom in late summer and autumn.

The description 'stiff' suggests that the anemone Daphne du Maurier has in mind may be one of the taller-growing varieties.

 

 

Page 24. " I paid twopence for the painting "

1936 George V penny
Public Domain1936 George V penny - Credit: Welkinridge
The British copper penny was in existence from the early 18th century until decimalisation of the coinage in 1971. It was sometimes informally known as a copper. There were twelve pennies to the shilling, and 240 pennies to the pound. An old penny, therefore, would have been worth approximately 0.42 of the post-decimalisation penny currently in use.

The copper penny's predecessor was the English silver penny which was first produced in the 8th century.

Page 25. " I looked at him over my glass of citronade "
Source of citronnade
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeMain ingredient of citronnade - Credit: André Karwath

 Citronade is currently the name given to a cocktail made from lemonade and lemon vodka. It seems likely, therefore, that what is being referred to here is citronnade (almost invariably spelt with a double 'n'), the french word for a type of lemonade made from fresh lemon juice, lemon zest, and sugar. When the pulp, juice and zest of the lemons are used, and the mixture is cooked for some time, the drink is often referred to as Tunisian citronnade.

Click here for a simple citronnade recipe (instructions in French)

Click here for the more complex Tunisian citronnade (instructions in French)

 

Page 25. " rather like the eastern slave market "
'The Harem: Introduction of an Abyssinian Slave (1860s)
Public Domain'The Harem: Introduction of an Abyssinian Slave (1860s) - Credit: John Frederick Lewis

From the 19th century onwards, the expression the East was a blanket term used by Europeans to describe large areas of Asia, with distinctions sometimes being drawn between the Near East, the Middle East and the Far East. In the post-colonial period, the use of such terminology has been analyzed and criticised in works such as Edward Saïd's Orientalism as representing a highly Eurocentric  view of the world.

Having said that, the eastern slave trade is a term still in use to describe slave-trading within the Arab world (Western Asia, North Africa and other areas historically under Arab rule). It is sometimes suggested that the eastern slave trade has received less attention from historians than the Atlantic slave trade.

 

Page 25. " She's training me to be a thing called a companion "
'A Leitura' ('The Reading')
Public Domain'A Leitura' ('The Reading') - Credit: Henri Fantin-Latour

Lady's companions were well-bred women paid to accompany wealthy or titled women. They were given board and lodging, as well as a small allowance, and were expected to provide conversation and companionship, help entertain guests, and carry out minor domestic duties. The term was in use from the 18th century (possibly earlier) until approximately the middle of the 20th century.

Their social position was rather ambiguous as, even though they were not considered to be servants or employees in the strict sense, they did not have the same status as those they worked for. They often appear as characters in Agatha Christie's novels.