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Known variously as St Petersburg, Petrograd and Leningrad since it was founded by Peter the Great in 1703, Russia's second city is referred to simply and affectionately by its inhabitants as "Peetr". Considering the (self-named) Peter the Great's megalomaniac tendencies, it's surprising to know that the tsar did not name the city after himself but rather after his patron saint, and he gave it a Dutch pronounciation, Sankt Peterburg, to prove his admiration of anything to do with Amsterdam.
Other monikers include Paris of the North, Venice of the North (because of the city's many canals) and the city "built on bones", (referring to the slaves who laboured and gave their lives for Peter's fantasy).
Some have called the city a 'monument to the Russian state's single-mindedness' because of the way in which the city was purpose-built. St Petersburg should not, in fact, exist at all; for reasons all his own, Peter I chose an inhospitable swamp exposed to the Gulf of Finland, unwanted by Sweden and Finland, to build his ambitious "Window on the West", and as a result, St Petersburg has some of the most blustery, damp and cold weather in the northern hemisphere and it floods cataclysmically on a regular basis.
The fact that the whole city went up in one go makes the architecture - if you ignore the Soviet monstruosities that followed - pleasingly homogenous, and crumbling in a rather even way. An 18th century confection of baroque and rococo style on the wide Neva River, and criss-crossed by a network of canals, St Petersburg has a distinctly European feel in contrast to earthy, more peasantile and medieval Old Russia capital Moscow. In fact, the two cities enjoy a healthy sibling rivalry, predicated on the superiority complex of old-money, cultured, intellectual St Petersburgers versus the money-loving, glitz-worshipping Muscovites.
St Petersburg occupies a very important place in Russian literature. Being the seat of the Imperial Court, it naturally attracted writers and composers such as Alexander Pushkin and Fyodor Dostoevsky until 1917, but once St Petersburg was no longer the country's political capital, it defined itself as the cultural capital instead, giving birth to writers such as Anna Akhmatova who chose to be (or remain) there rather than Moscow. So revered are Russia's writers in their home country that you could spend a whole day riding the St Petersburg metro, navigating various literary periods. You could, for example, jump on at Dostoevskaya station and travel to Pushkinskaya, Cherneshevskaya and Gorkovskaya in only a couple of easy changes.
Almost a hundred years after Nabokov left his beloved native city, St Petersburg still has the majesty of a former Imperial capital. The Winter Palace which houses the world-famous Hermitage Museum on the Neva River, the Peter and Paul Fortress, the Mariinsky Theatre (home to the Mariinsky, formerly the Kirov, Ballet and Opera companies). As Russia's largest port, the city still also has strong links with water; uniformed naval cadets are an everyday sight around town, and St Petersburgers love to walk along the city's canals and riverbanks during the remarkable three weeks of the year known as the White Nights, when the city is bathed in a golden glow from 11pm til 3am, and the sun never sets.
In 2003 the then Russian President, Vladimir Putin (himself a St Petersburger) led the celebrations of the city's three hundredth anniversary.
Cambridge is a university town in East Anglia, about 80km north of London. Best known as the home of the University of Cambridge, the town has a population of about 109,000, of which about a fifth is made up of students.
Germany's largest city, Berlin, has been capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (from 1701 to 1918), the German Empire (from 1871 to 1918), the Weimar Republic (from 1919 to 1933) and the Third Reich (from 1933 to 1945). The city was split into two enclaves: East and West following World War II, and the Berlin Wall was erected in 1961 to keep the two separate. East Berlin became the capital of East Germany, or the DDR. In 1989 the Wall came down, and the country reunified to form one Germany, of which Berlin is now the capital.
When Nabokov lived there in the 1920s, Berlin was the third largest municipality in the world. Out of the ashes of World War I came beauty and decadence, fuelled by the despair, humiliation and economic ruin that lingered in Germany after 1918. During that frenzied decade in Berlin, Kurt Weill invented and introduced the musical to the world, Josephine Baker caused a sensation with her infamous Banana Dance, jazz and cabarets flourished, as did classical music (the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra was under the baton of the inimitable Wilhelm Furtwangler and played by new composers such as Igor Stravinsky). In art, Dadaism was the talk of Berlin, led by figures such as Hans Richter. The most influential book written in the decade was Erich Maria Remarque's "All Quiet on the Western Front", chronicling the horror of war.
Nabokov lived for a while in a southwestern neighbourhood known then as Wilmersdorf, and now as the borough of Charlottenberg-Wilmersdorf.