Page 253. " a large hall, without the servant, which reminds me of an Inferno with its diabolical punishments "

    'Inferno' is the Italian word for Hell, given wider usage by Dante Alighieri's epic 14th-century poem of that name.  The first part of his Divine Comedy, an allegorical trilogy representing Dante's own imagined journey through Hell, Purgatory and Heaven, it draws on both Biblical scripture and classical myth to vividly depict the monstrous wardens of Hell and the graphic torments visited on its inmates. 


Online edition of Dante Alighieri's 'Divine Comedy' as translated by Rev. HF Cary, M.A., (1805)



Page 254. " The Moor has done his duty. The Moor can go "

   A line from Act III Scene 4 of Fiesco (1783), the second drama by German playwright Friedrich Schiller (See note to page 20), fictionalising a real 16th century conspiracy.  The words are spoken in mock-humility by lead conspirator Fiesco's 'Moorish' manservant Muley Hassan, after he is ordered to leave the room.


Online script of the play at Project Gutenberg

Page 257. " Something like 'Narrenturm' ['Tower of Fools'] might be the word in which both thoughts could coincide "
'Narrenturm', University of Vienna, (2006)
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike'Narrenturm', University of Vienna, (2006) - Credit: Gryffindor

    Opened in 1784, the 'Fool's Tower' of the Vienna General Hospital was reputedly the first facility built exclusively to house the mentally ill.  Though praised for its architecture, the strict conditions within exemplified the harsh style of treatment which would gradually fall out of favour throughout the 19th century.


Video tour by David Bickerstaff, (Wellcome Collection, 'Madness and Modernity', 2009)

Page 259. " to them, pillars and columns signify legs (as in the Song of Songs) "

The Song of Songs is one of the three books of the Bible which tradition states were written by Solomon, whom it elsewhere depicts as a wise but sinful King of Israel. 

Chronicling the courtship of an anonymous man and woman in the first-person, it has been read as an allegory for the loving relationship between God and his followers – albeit told with an unusual amount of vivid sexual innuendo.  The words Freud recalls are from Chapter Five, as the song's female voice describes the body of her lover:

His legs are as pillars of marble, set upon sockets of fine gold

Online edition of the 'Authorized King James Bible', (originally published 1611)

Page 260. " the deposit of fantasy-comparisons from the oldest of ancient times "

   Freud again refers to lines from the Biblical Song of Songs, specifically those in which the male and female voices seem metaphorically to describe each others' sexual organs:

Chapter Seven (She to He): "Let us get up early to the vineyards; let us see if the vine flourish...there will I give thee my loves"


Chapter Four (He of She): "A garden inclosed is my sister, my spouse; a spring shut up, a fountain sealed"


Page 269. " On the pedestal of the monument to Emperor Joseph II in the Hofburg in Vienna "
Detail from 'Josefsplatz in Vienna', (2008)
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeDetail from 'Josefsplatz in Vienna', (2008) - Credit: UrLunkwill

    The statue Freud describes is the centrepiece of the Josefplatz square near the Hofburg Palace, residence of Austria's former Emperors and now its President.  It commemorates Austrian ruler and Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II (1741-1790) with a Latin inscription: "For the well-being of his country he lived not long but wholly"


Google Map


Page 270. " As Caesar loved me, I weep for him; as he was fortunate, I rejoice at it; as he was valiant, I honour him; but, as he was ambitious, I slew him "

   From Brutus' speech to the assembled masses in William Shakespeare's Julius Caesar (circa-1599).  The play chronicles the events leading up to and following Caesar's assassination by a group of politicians, which Brutus helped perform and here attempts to defend.


Online text of the play at ‘

Page 271. " I performed the scene between Brutus and Caesar from Schiller's Poems "

   A reference to Act IV, Scene Five, of German playwright Friedrich Schiller’s popular drama The Robbers (1781).  The poem is sung by bandit leader Karl von Moor, and tells of an imagined meeting between the deceased Brutus and Caesar on the shores of the River Styx.

Online script of the play at Project Gutenberg

Page 273. " Callot's etchings contain a tremendous number of very small figures, one set of them deals with the horrors of the Thirty Years War "

   Jacque Callot (1592–1635) was an influential printmaker, whose etchings depicted scenes and figures from all walks of 17th-century life.  Freud refers to his best known series of prints, The Miseries of War (1633), depicting the brutality inflicted on solider and civilian alike during the 'Thirty Years War'.