Click here to see moor park apricots.
Queen Elizabeth I of England (1533-1603) reigned from 1558 until her death.
As mentioned previously, the fictional Sotherton is thought to be partly based on Stoneleigh Abbey in Warwickshire (the home of Jane Austen's relatives) which was completed in 1561, and could certainly be described as 'a large regular brick building - heavy but respectably looking ...' (see bookmark p.50).
Today, Twickenham is a large suburban town situated about 10 miles southwest of central London in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames.
In the 18th century, it was a pleasant Thames-side village, and a popular residential area for the wealthy. The poet Alexander Pope lived in Twickenham from 1719 until his death in 1744.
Various designs of harp have been used in different places at different times. The Irish harp or clàrsach is linked to the medieval Irish and Scottish traditions, and modifications of these (sometimes given the name Celtic harps) were also developed during the nineteenth century. In Wales, a harp with three rows of strings became popular, and although originally developed in 17th century Italy, it subsequently became known as the Welsh triple harp. In Europe generally, from the 17th century onwards, diatonic harps and triple-strung harps were superseded by pedal harps - the single-action pedal harp being developed around 1720, and the double-action pedal harp in 1810. A unique design known as the chromatic/cross strung harp was also developed from the seventeenth century onwards.
Taking into account the dates of these various developments in relation to the period in which Mansfield Park is set (and the nature of the various harps), it seems reasonable to assume that Miss Crawford may have been the owner of a single-action pedal harp.
As the illustrations show, artistic depictions of female harpists in the early 19th century ranged from the demure to the humorous to the erotically suggestive.
Listen here to the melody Greensleeves played on the harp.
A barouche was a fashionable 19th century four-wheeled horse-drawn carriage with a collapsible half-hood. It had two double seats, arranged so that two pairs of travellers sat facing one another.
During the Georgian period (1714-1830), it again became important as a spa, as well as a popular social venue for fashionable society. Its popularity and status during this period is reflected in the city's architecture, of which the Royal Crescent and The Circus (both of which were built in traditional Bath stone during the second half of the 18th century) are particularly notable examples.
* some sources say 1805
The phrase 'in the King's service' is usually used to describe military action carried out on behalf of the country (and therefore the reigning (male) sovereign).
Post-Captain (now an obsolete term) was the name given to those who actually held the rank of Captain in the Royal Navy. As the title 'Captain' was given to any officer who commanded a ship, regardless of rank, the term 'post-captain' was a means of distinguishing those who held the rank of Captain.
Rear Admiral and Vice Admiral are ranks in the Royal Navy, so Miss Crawford is referring to Admirals she has known. She, herself, notes the possibility for double meaning in the phrase 'rears and vices', and it has been suggested that 'rears' is intended to bring to mind the Navy's reputation for homosexual activity. However, bearing in mind Jane Austen's tendency to set great store by female propriety, one can't help wondering whether she would have allowed one of her female characters (albeit one of the more risqué ones) to have even hinted at such a thing. Possibly, therefore, Miss Crawford is only suggesting the possibility of a pun on the word vices, as she has already indicated that she considers the behaviour of admirals as a group to be somewhat lacking in propriety.
Westminster School is situated within the grounds of Westminster Abbey in the City of Westminster, London. It was established in the 12th century, and was one of the nine schools (along with Eton, Harrow and Charterhouse) which were reformed and regulated by the Public Schools Act of 1868.
A tambour frame (now known as an embroidery hoop) consists of two concentric circular or elliptical hoops over which fabric is stretched to keep it taut for embroidery or other forms of needlework.
The poor-basket would have contained material that could be made into items for the poor of the parish, as an 'act of charity'. In the next sentence, it is revealed that the basket contains calico, a cheap white or cream-coloured unbleached cotton.
During the late 18th and early 19th century, women often used aromatic substances in a base of vinegar or alcohol to revive themselves if they felt faint or unwell. They were also used to mask unpleasant odours arising from rotting garbage or sewage.
These aromatic liquids were contained in small ornamental boxes known as vinaigrettes, which contained a sponge soaked in a perfumed substance placed beneath a grille or perforated cover.
Aromatic vinegars and smelling salts (sometimes known as sal volatile or spirit of hartshorn) were also sometimes carried in glass containers known as smelling bottles. In the mid, and late Victorian period, glass containers were sometimes divided into two sections, one containing perfume, and one containing aromatic vinegar or smelling salts.
Madeira is a fortified Portuguese wine produced in Madeira, a group of islands situated in the north Atlantic, one of which is called Madeira. Exportation of unfortified Madeiran wine began in the 16th century, whilst the production of wines fortified with brandy began in the 18th century.
A chaise was a light horse-drawn pleasure carriage, with two or four wheels and a folding hood. Typically, it carried one or two people.
Click here for further information about types of carriage.
The post chaise was a a closed four-wheel horse-drawn carriage designed for rapid long-distance travel. It seated two to four passengers, and had windows at both the sides and the front of the carriage. Because the driver rode one of the horses, the place where the driver's seat or 'box' would normally be was used as a luggage area.
Click here to see a photo of a post chaise.
(See also bookmark p.245)
The box (box seat or coach box) was the name given to the driver's seat in a coach or carriage. The suggestion in the text is that there would be room for two people on this seat in the barouche.