When Heidi was written, in 1880, there would have been about 1,240 people living there. Today, there are just over 2,500.
Hobnails are short nails with chunky heads.
Hobnailed boots have hobnails fitted onto their soles to give a grip on rocky ground or on snow. They sometimes also have a horseshoe-shaped piece of iron on the heel, and a metal toe-cap.
Click here to see another picture of hobnailed boots
The village of Dörfli is a fictional creation. Johanna Spyri was probably thinking of one of the small hamlets on the mountainside above Maienfeld. One such hamlet is Ober-Rofels, which is now known as Heididorf (Heidi's village).
At Heididorf, one of the old houses has been made into a museum called Heidihaus (Heidi's house). Visitors can see models of some of the characters from the book. They are also offered some idea of what it would have been like to live in a Swiss alpine home over one hundred years ago. The whole of the area associated with Heidi has been given the name Heidiland.
Frankfurt is a city in the southwestern part of Germany. The river which flows through its centre is called the Main. In 1910 there were about 414,000 people living in the city. Today there are about 704,000.
It is sometimes known as Frankfurt am Main (Frankfurt on Main) so as not to confuse it with Frankfurt (Oder), a town in northeast Germany.
Ragaz, now usually called Bad Ragaz, is a small town about a mile (2 km) from Maienfeld (see bookmark p.1). It lies at the foot of the Pizol mountain and is in the canton of St. Gallen (which is marked SG on the map of the cantons).
From 1840 onwards, thermal water (water which is naturally warm and rich in minerals) was piped to Bad Ragaz from the spring at Pfäfers just a short distance away. Bad Ragaz then became well known as a health spa. Several luxury hotels, such as the Grand Hotel Quellenhof, were built to accommodate visitors to the spa.
When Heidi was written in 1880, there were just under 2,000 people living in Bad Ragaz.
Heidi has been translated from the original German into many other languages. It has been translated more than once into English, and different translators have used different words and phrases. In some versions of Heidi, 'Uncle Alp' is called 'Alm-Uncle'.
Both 'alp' and 'alm' are German words for high mountain pastures where animals are taken to graze in the summer.
The Domleschg valley is in the Swiss canton of Graubünden. The main village in the valley is called Thusis.
Prior to 1848, individual Swiss cantons had their own armies. After that date, the armies from the cantons were made into one central army.
Up until 1874, Swiss soldiers sometimes served as merceneries in European battles. They were involved in conflicts in the Kingdom of Naples in southern Italy from 1731 onwards, and had four regiments stationed there during the middle part of the 19th century. On the map, Regno di Napoli is the Kingdom of Naples. The city of Naples is marked as Napoli.
Mels is a small town in the canton of St. Gallen not far from Maienfeld (see bookmark p.1). In 1900, there were just over 4,000 people living there. Today, there are almost 8,000.
In Switzerland, a pastor is a minister in the Protestant Church.
Until 1920, the Protestant churches as a group were known as the Swiss Reformed Church. Since 1920, they have been known as the Federation of Swiss Protestant Churches.
The picture on the left is the Swiss Reformed church at Jenins. It has been suggested that Jenins may be the model for the village of Dörfli.
The 'town' is Bad Ragaz (see bookmark p.3).
Originally, visitors could bathe in the hot spring water at Pfäfers itself. From the 13th century onwards, monks from the Benedictine monastery in the village took advantage of the healing powers of the water, and a special bath-house was built in 1704.
The spa at Pfäfers, called Bad Pfäfers, was the first spa established in Switzerland.
A goatherd is a person who takes care of goats.
In Switzerland it is a tradition that animals graze on the high mountain pastures in the summer. This means that farmers either move to the higher ground to live during the summer or that they employ a herdsman.
In Heidi, Peter is employed to look after the goats during the summer months but goes to school during the winter.
Three-legged stools are traditionally used when milking cows and other animals.
They are said to be less wobbly to sit on than four-legged stools.
Bellows are used to pump air into a fire so that it burns more brightly.
A toasting fork is a long-handled fork. It is used for toasting food, especially bread, in front of an open fire.